The Spanish introduced cacao to Europe in the mid-seventeenth century, adding spices (cinnamon, anise, black pepper, almonds, and sugar) to sweeten or alter the traditionally bitter beverage. By the eighteenth century, England, North America, and France had developed chocoholic populations. Although many publications advocated the medicinal values of chocolate, Westerners valued it for its status as a fashionable, expensive drink. Preparing chocolate was a time-consuming, complicated process that demanded expensive ingredients, equipment, space, and labor. Silversmiths profited from the new drink with specialized silver chocolate sets.