Although they vary, basic funeral rituals can be observed in the depictions of death of holy men, clergy, monks, and laymen. Most of the laymen and clergy were depicted with hands crossed and placed over their chests, attended by other clergy performing rituals. Some elements from illustrations of the death of Christ and the Virgin were occasionally incorporated into the death scenes of clergy, monks, and laymen. For example, in the icon of St. Ephrem from the Hagios Nikolaos Anapafsas, Meteora, the saint is depicted holding an icon of the dead Christ. Funerary scenes of lay persons were sometimes influenced by icons of the Dormition of the Virgin. The illumination of the 14th century Bulgarian Manasses chronicle, Vatican Library, depicts the soul of Prince Ivan Asen carried by angels to heaven, similar to the ascending soul of the Virgin in Dormition icons.
Descriptions (ekphraseis) from Byzantine literature and artistic representations of funeral scenes reveal the class distinctions of the deceased. Bishops, priests, monks, and laymen had different funeral ceremonies and were dressed according to their status. Bishops were shown wearing vestments and holding a Gospel Book in their hands. Their funerals were attended by singers and clergy. Monks were usually depicted wearing monastic garb and lying on a modest bed or funeral bier. In the frescoes of the chapel of St. Euthymios, in the cathedral of St. Demetrios in Thessaloniki (1303), the saint is shown lying on a straw mat surrounded by monks. In contrast, emperors and empresses were adorned for the funeral ceremony in imperial regalia with a crown and purple shoes. They were attended by clergy, singers, family members, and courtiers, seen in the fresco depicting the funeral of Anna Dandolo.