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The Techniques and Materials of the Wall Paintings at the Enkleistra of St. Neophytos (Phase II)
Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 1 Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 1
The exterior of the Enkleistra (top) and plan of the cave complex showing the Cell, the Bema, the Naos, and the Narthex (bottom; Mango and Hawkins 1966).
 
Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 1a Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 1a
Plan of the Enkleistra complex of St. Neophytos (Mango and Hawkins 1966)
 
Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 2 Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 2
Depiction of St. Neophytos flaked by the archangels Michael and Gabriel, who hold him by the shoulders (Bema)
 
Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 3 Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 3
Fresco painting depicting St. Andrew Salos, painted in a single giornata
 
Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 4 Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 4
Scene of the Crucifixion on the south wall of the Cell, painted over a thin layer of lead white applied as an intermediate layer to mask a preexisting painting
 
Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 5 Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 5
UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a reference celadonite mineral sample from Cyprus and an unknown green paint sample from the Enkleistra. UV/Vis/NIR provided the exact identification of celadonite with the speciation of the iron (Fe) compounds showing a broad absorption between 540 and 750 nm indicative of the d-d ligand-field and intervalence charge-transfer (IVCT) transitions in the visible region of the chromophors Fe^+2 and Fe^+3 and by the overtones and combination bands of the structural OH (octahedral site, bound to a cation) stretching and bending vibrations and H2O stretching and bending vibrations in the near infrared region.
 
Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 6 Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 6
UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a reference lapis lazuli (lazurite mineral) and unknown blue paint samples from the Enkleistra. The identification of lapis lazuli in the blue paints was determined by its distinctive electronic spectrum displaying a strong and broad absorption around 600 nm in the visible caused by the S3 paramagnetic radical anion in lapis lazuli.
 
Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 7 Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 7
UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a reference cinnabar sample and unknown red paint samples from the Enkleistra. The identification of cinnabar in the red paints was possible due to the characteristic absorption edge (or band edge) of sulfur (S) and by pXRF spectroscopy with the photon emissions at 9.987 keV (L-alpha edge energy) and 11.823 keV (L-beta edge energy) characteristic of mercury.
 
Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 8 Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 8
UV/Vis/NIR reflectance spectra of a green paint samples that were covered by wax applied in a previous restoration. The wax was identified through the characteristic absorptions of CH2 and CH combination bands and overtones in the near infrared.
 
Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 9 Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 9
XRF spectrum of the green paint in the scene depicting Virgin Mary, orans (Bema, east wall), showing the prominent presence of arsenic (As). The iron (Fe) is from celadonite and calcium (Ca) from the plaster (calcium carbonate).
 
Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 10 Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 10
XRF spectra of the green paint in a scene in the Bema that does not contain arsenic (As). The spectrum shows the characteristic x-rays for Fe in the celadonite and Ca in the plaster.
 
Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 11 Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 11
XRF spectra of the green paint in a scene in the Bema that does not contain arsenic (As). The spectrum shows the characteristic x-rays for Fe in the celadonite and Ca in the plaster.
 
Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 12 Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 12
Cross section samples of the arsenic-rich green paint (from the Deesis scene, Cell, north wall) in reflected polarized light (top) and in backscattered electrons using VPSEM (bottom).
 
Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 13 Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 13
Image of the scene "washing of the feet" (Naos, west wall), showing an extensive area of red alteration on the robe of the apostle to the left.
 
Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 14 Koukoulli and Fischer 2011/12, Fig. 14
Alteration of cinnabar (HgS). Micrographs of sample 16 (from left clockwise): a stereomicroscopic image of sample 16 showing a layer of altered red; the same sample.
 

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The Techniques and Materials of the Wall Paintings at the Enkleistra of St. Neophytos (Phase II)