Chalcedon in Syriac Perspective (2000)

General

Historical background

W. Baum and D. Winkler, Die Apostolische Kirche des OstenS: Geschichte der sogenannten Nestorianer (Klagenfurt, 2000).

J-M. Fiey, Jalons pour une histoire de l’église en Iraq (CSCO 310, Subsidia 36; 1970).

W.H.C. Frend, The Rise of the Monophysite Movement (Cambridge, 1972).

E. Honigmann, Évêques et Évêchés monophysites d’Asie anterieure au VIe siècle (CSCO 127, Subsidia 2; 1951).

J. Labourt, Le christianisme dans l’empire perse (Paris, 1904).

K. Parry and J.F. Coakley (eds), The Church of the East: Life and Thought, = Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Manchester 78 (1996).

W.A. Wigram, An Introduction to the History of the Assyrian Church (London, 1910).

———, The Separation of the Monophysites (London, 1923; reprinted New York, 1978).

W.G. Young, Patriarch, Shah, and Caliph (Rawalpindi, 1974).

Doctrinal History

A. Grillmeier and T. Hainthaler, Christ in Christian Tradition 2.1, 2.2, and 2.4 (London, 1987, 1994, 1996).

J. Meyendorff, Christ in Eastern Christian Thought (Crestwood, NY, 1975).

J. Pelikan, The Christian Tradition Vol. 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (1971), ch. 5; The Christian Tradition Vol. 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (1974), ch. 2.

Some Non-Chalcedonian and Modern Ecumenical Approaches

Mar Aprem, The Council of Ephesus (Trichur, Kerala, 1978).

Paulos Gregorios and others (edd.), Does Chalcedon Divide or Unite? (WCC Geneva, 1981).

Pro Oriente, Syriac Dialogue: First Non-Official Consultation on Dialogue within the Syriac Tradition (Vol. 1; Vienna, 1994). [on the Christology of Church of the East; further volumes, Syriac Dialogue Vols. 2–4, deal with similar aspects].

V.C. Samuel, The Council of Chalcedon Re-Examined (Serampore College, 1977).

K. Sarkissian, The Council of Chalcedon and the Armenian Church (London, 1965; later reprinted).

Doctrinal Positions of the Syriac Churches

Non-ChalcedonianChalcedonianNon-Chalcedonian
Reject Chalcedon (451) Reject Ephesus II (449) Reject Ephesus I (431) & II
Accept Ephesus I & II Ambivalent over Chalcedon
MARONITE
MELKITE
SYRIAN ORTHODOX SYRIAN CATHOLIC
SYRO-MALANKARA (India)
CHALDEAN CHURCH OF THE EAST
SYRO-MALABAR (India)

Syriac translations of technical terms

Anon. [R.H. Connolly], “On the History of the Syriac terms ithutha, ithya, kyana parsupa, and qnuma”, in J.F. Bethune Baker, Nestorius and His Teaching (Cambridge, 1908), 212–232.

S.P. Brock, in The Christology of the Church of the East. [see below: Church of the East, Secondary Literature]

A. de Halleux, “La philoxenienne du symbole”, II Symposium Syriacum (OCA 205 1978), 295–315.

J. Gribomont, “La cathéchèse de Severe d’Antioche et le Credo”, Parole de l’orient 5/6 (1974/5), 125–158.

W.A. Wigram, An Introduction to the History of the Assyrian Church (London, 1910).

Shifts in Translation Practice

(A)

  1. lbesh pagra “he put on a body”
  2. ’ethgashsham “he was embodied”
  3. ’ethbassar “he was enfleshed”

(B)

  1. bar kyana “of the same nature” (lit. “son of the nature”).
  2. bar ’ithutha “of the same being”
  3. shawe b-’ithutha “equal in being”
  4. shawe b-’usya “equal in ousia

Standard Sixth-Century Equivalents

  • transliterated (or ’ithutha, esp. in East Syriac texts)
  • kyana “nature”.
  • qnomahypostasis, self”, etc.
  • transliterated parsopa

NB: to Syrian Orthodox kyana is very close in meaning to qnoma; but to Church of the East kyana is very close in meaning to ousia / ’ithutha, while qnoma almost has the sense of “particularity” (Syrian Orthodox dilayta). For general developments in translation practice see S.P. Brock, “Towards a History of Syriac Translation Technique”, in III Symposium Syriacum (OCA 221; 1981), 1–14, reprinted in Studies in Syriac Christianity (1992), ch. X.

Syrian Orthodox

Main Texts

Severus

  • Philalethes, CSCO 133–134.

  • Against the Grammarian, CSCO 93–94, 101–102, 111–112 (i.e. against John of Caesarea, whose works are edited by M. Richard and M. Aubineau, Corpus Christianorum: Series Graeca 1).

  • Correspondence with Sergius, CSCO 119–120. English translation, I.R. Torrance, Christology after Chalcedon: Severus of Antioch & Sergius the Monophysite (Norwich, 1988).

  • Controversy with Julian of Halicarnassus, CSCO 244–245, 295–296, 219–220.

  • Letters, in Patrologia Orientalis 12 and 14 (with English translation).

Philoxenus

    • Tractatus tres de Trinitate et Incarnatione, CSCO 9–10.

    • Three Letters of Philoxenus, ed. Vaschalde (Rome, 1902).

    • Letter to the Monks of Tel ‘Ada, ed. Guidi (Rome, 1886).

    • Letter to the Monks of Senoun, CSCO 231–232.

    • Second Letter to the Monasteries of Beth Gaugal, in Le Muséon 96 (1983), 7–79.

    • Kephalaia, English translation in E.A.W. Budge, The Discourses of Philoxenus (London, 1894), 2.xxxi-xlviii.

    • Commentary on the Prologue of John, CSCO 380–381.

Jacob of Serugh

      • Letters, CSCO 110; French translation of Letter 6, L’orient syrien 12 (1967), 491–503.

      • Homily on Chalcedon (authenticity uncertain). English translation, S.P. Brock, Texts and Studies (ed. Abp Methodios Fouyas) 8–10 (Athens, 1989/91), 448–459.

Various Authors

        • A. van Roey and P. Allen, Monophysite Texts of the Sixth Century (Orientalia Lovaniensia Analecta 56; 1994).

Some Secondary Literature

R.C. Chesnut, Three Monophysite Christologies: Severus of Antioch, Philoxenus of Mabbug, and Jacob of Serugh (Oxford, 1976).

A. de Halleux, Philoxène de Mabbog: Sa vie, ses écrits, sa théologie (Louvain, 1963).

———, “Philoxenus”, Theologische Realenzyklopädie 26 (1996), 576–580.

R. Draguet, Julien d’Halicarnasse et sa controverse avec Sévère d’Antioche sur l’incorruptibilité de corps du Christ (Louvain, 1924). [Review, with summary, by R.P. Casey, Harvard Theological Review 19 (1926), 206–213; critique by M. Jugie, Echos d’orient 28 (1925), 129–162, 257–285].

A. Grillmeier and T. Hainthaler, Christ in Christian Tradition [see above: General, Doctrinal history], 2.2 (on Severus).

J. Lebon, Le monophysisme sévérien (Louvain, 1909).

———, “La christologie du monophysisme syrien”, Das Konzil von Chalkedon (Wurzburg, 1951), 1.425–580.

Conversations of 532: Chalcedonian account by Innocentius of Maronia in ACO 4.2.169–184; Justinian’s prayer: 88. Syrian Orthodox account with English translation in OCP 47 (1981); summary in S.P. Brock, Syriac Perspectives on Late Antiquity (London, 1984), ch. XI; full translation reprinted in Studies in Syriac Christianity (1992), ch. XIII.

Church of the East

Main texts

Narsai

Metrical Homilies on the Nativity, Epiphany, Passion, Resurrection, and Ascension, ed. F.G. McLeod, Patrologia Orientalis 40.1 (1979). [with English translation]

“Homily on the Three Doctors” (Diodore, Theodore, Nestorius), Journal Asiatique 2:14–15 (1899–1900). [edition and French translation]

Cyrus of Edessa

Six Explanations of the Liturgical Feasts, ed. W. Macomber, CSCO 355–356 (1974). [with English translation]

Babai the Great

Liber de Unione, ed. A. Vaschalde, CSCO 79–80 (1915).[with Latin Translation]

Isho‘yahb II

L. Sako, Lettre christologique du patriarche syro-oriental Isho‘yahb II de Gdala (628–646) (Rome, 1983).

Martyrios/Sahdona

Book of Perfection, Part 2, ch. 1 (CSCO 214–215).

Isho‘yahb III

Letters, ed. R. Duval, CSCO 11–12 (1904–1905). [with Latin Translation]

Synods

  • Main edition (with French translation) by J.B. Chabot, Synodicon Orientale (Paris, 1902):
    • AD 410 (Isaac): pp. 22–23(text)/262–263(trans.).
    • 486 (Acacius): pp. 54–55/302.
    • 544 (Aba): pp. 541–543/551–553.
    • 554 (Joseph): pp. 97–98/355.
    • 576 (Ezekiel): 113–114/371–373.
    • 585 (Isho‘yahb I): pp. 133–136/394–398 (compare 193–196/452–455).
    • 598 (Sabrisho‘ I): pp. 201–202/463.
    • 605 (Gregory I): pp. 209–210/473–474.
    • 612 (interregnum): pp. 564–567/582–584 (compare 568–580/586–598; objections against the Severan Theopaschites).
    • 680 (Letter of Catholicos Giwargis): pp. 227–244/490–512 (esp. 234–235/499–500).
  • English translation of key passages, S.P. Brock, Studies in Syriac Christianity (1992), ch. XII.
  • L. Abramowski and A.E. Goodman (eds), A Nestorian Collection of Christological Texts (2 vols; Cambridge, 1972). [with English translation]

Some Secondary Literature

A. Abramowski, Untersuchungen zum Liber Heraclidis des Nestorius (CSCO Subsidia 22; 1963).

———, “Babai der Grosse: Christologische Probleme und ihre Losungen”, OCP 41 (1975), 290–343.

———, “Die Christologie Babais des Grossen”, in [I] Symposium Syriacum (OCA 197; 1974), 219–245.

S. P. Brock, “The Christology of the Church of the East in the Synods of the Fifth to Early Seventh Centuries: Preliminary Considerations and Materials”, in G. Dragas (ed.), Aksum-Thyateira: A Festschrift for Archbishop Methodios (London-Athens, 1985), 125–142; reprinted in Studies in Syriac Christianity (1992), ch. XII.

———, “Christ ‘the Hostage’: A Theme in the East Syrian Liturgical Tradition and Its Origins”, in Logos: Festschrift fur Luise Abramowski (BZNW 67; 1993), 472–485.

———, “The Christology of the Church of the East”, in A. Muraviev and D. Afinogenov (eds), Traditions and Heritage of the Christian East (Moscow, 1996), 159–179. [Russian translation in Vestnik Drevnei Istorii (1995), 2:39–53.

———, “The ‘Nestorian’ Church: A Lamentable Misnomer”, in K. Parry and J.F. Coakley (eds), The Church of the East: Life and Thought, = Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 78 (1996), 23–35.

———, “La doctrine”, in C. Cannuyer (ed.), Les Assyro-Chaldeens (Turnhout: forthcoming).

G. Chediath, The Christology of Mar Babai the Great (Kottayam, 1982).

A. de Halleux, “La christologie de Martyrios/Sahdona dans l’évolution du nestorianisme”, OCP 23 (1957), 5–32.

———, “Nestorius: Histoire et doctrine”, Irénikon 56 (1993), 38–51, 163–77. [English translation (without notes) in Pro Oriente: Syriac Dialogue 1 (Vienna, 1994).]

W. de Vries, “Die syrisch-nestorianische Haltung zu Chalkedon”, in Das Konzil von Chalkedon (Wurzburg, 1951), 1.603–635.

S. Gero, Barsauma of Nisibis and Persian Christianity in the Fifth Century (CSCO 426; 1981).

A. Guillaumont, “Justinien et l’église de Perse”, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23/4 (1969–1970), 41–66. [edition and French translation of a discussion between Chalcedonians and Paul, bishop of Nisibis, perhaps soon after treaty of 561]

V. Grumel, “Un théologien nestorien: Babai le grand”, Echos d’orient 22 (1923), 153–181, 257–280; 23 (1924), 9–33, 162–177; 257–274, 395–399.

W. Macomber, “The Christology of the Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon (AD 486)”, OCP 24 (1958), 142–154.

———, “The Theological Synthesis of Cyrus of Edessa”, OCP 30 (1964), 5–38.

[D. Miller], “A Brief Historical and Theological Introduction to the Church of Persia to the End of the Seventh Century”, in The Ascetical Homilies of St Isaac the Syrian (Holy Transfiguration Monastery, Boston, 1984), 481–541.

Pro Oriente, Syriac Dialogue Vol. 1 and following (Vienna, 1994–). [includes important papers by Mar Bawai Soro and others]

L. Scipioni, “Il libro di Eraclide di Nestorio e il Liber de Unione di Babai il Grande”, Ricerche sulla cristologia del “Libro di Eraclide” di Nestorio (Fribourg, 1956), 110–158.

D. Winkler, “Forschungen zur ostsyrischen Theologie des 7. Jahrhunderts”, in M. Tamcke and A. Heinz (eds), Zu Geschichte, Theologie, Liturgie, und Gegenwartslage der syrischen Kirchen (Muenster, 2000), 195–206.

See also Labourt [above: General, Historical Background] ch. 9; contributions to Parry and Coakley [above: General, Historical Background]; Wigram [above: General, Historical Background], ch. 13–14; and contributions to Pro Oriente [above: General, Non-Chalcedonian].

The Aftermath Of Chalcedon: Christology In The Sixth Century

Doctrinal Positions

Non-ChalcedonianChalcedonianNon-Chalcedonian
Alexandrine Antiochene
Reject Chalcedon (451) Reject Ephesus II (449) Reject Ephesus I (431)
Accept Ephesus I & II Ambivalent on Chalcedon
ORIENTAL ORTHODOX GREEK EAST CHURCH OF THE EAST
(Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopian, Syrian) LATIN WEST
EASTERN RITE CATHOLIC
Chaldean
Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopian, Syrian Catholic

Some Secondary Literature

S.P. Brock, “The Christology of the Church of the East”, in G. Dragas (ed.), Festschrift for Archbishop Methodios (1985). [Reprinted in Studies in Syriac Christianity (1992), ch. XII.]

———, “The Conversations with the Syrian Orthodox (532)”, OCP 47 (1981). [Reprinted in Studies in Syriac Christianity, ch. XIII.]

———, “The ‘Nestorian Church’: A Lamentable Misnomer”, Bulletin of the John Rylands Library 78 (1996), 23–35.

G. Chediath, The Christology of Mar Babai the Great (Kottayam, 1982).

R. Chesnut, Three Monophysite Christologies (Oxford, 1976) [Severus, Philoxenus, Jacob of Serugh].

W.H.C. Frend, The Rise of the Monophysite Movement (Cambridge, 1972).

A. Grillmeier and T. Hainthaler, Christ in Christian Tradition, 2.1, 2.2, 2.4 (London, 1987, 1994, 1996).

A. Guillaumont, “Justinien et l’église de Perse”, Dumbarton Oaks Papers 23/4 (1969–1970), 41–66.

E. Honigmann, Évêques et évêchés monophysites d’Asie anterieure au VIe siécle (CSCO 127, Subsidia 2; Louvain, 1951).

J. Lebon, “La christologie du monophysisme syrien”, Das Konzil von Chalkedon (Wurzburg, 1951), 425–580.

A.D. Lee, “Evagrius, Paul of Nisibis, and the Problem of Loyalties in the Mid-Sixth Century”, Journal of Ecclesiastical History 44 (1993), 569–585.

J. Meyendorff, Christ in Eastern Christian Thought (Crestwood, NY, 1975).

K. Parry and J.F. Coakley (eds), The Church of the East, = Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Manchester 78 (1996).

J. Pelikan, The Christian Tradition, Vol. 1: The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (1971), ch. 5; The Christian Tradition, Vol. 2: The Spirit of Eastern Christendom (1972), ch. 2.

W.A. Wigram, An Introduction to the History of the Church of the East (London, 1910).

———, The Separation of the Monophysites (London, 1923; reprinted New York, 1978).

W.G. Young, Patriarch, Shah, and Caliph (Rawalpindi, 1974).

Document Actions