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The Horologion in Constantinople and Peripheries: Palatine, Secular, and Monastic Contexts

Stig Frøyshov, University of Oslo, Fellow 2015–2016

My project concerned the adoption and evolution in Constantinople and its peripheries of the Jerusalem Book of Hours (Horologion) until the time of the Fourth Crusade, with particular emphasis on the ecclesiastical contexts for its use (monastic, palatine, and patriarchal). The project had two distinct parts: until the tenth century, no Greek Horologion manuscripts for Constantinople seem to have been preserved, but in the eleventh and twelfth centuries, we encounter Horologion manuscripts clearly relating to Constantinople. My project evolved into a broad study of the Hagiopolites office in Constantinople until about the eleventh century. From the outset, my hypothesis was that the Hagiopolites Divine Office in Constantinople had been practiced not only by monasteries, but also by palatine and secular, or even patriarchal, churches. Study of nonmonastic hymnographers makes it safe to deduce that the Hagiopolites rite was used at the Great Palace, at least in some of its churches, from the eighth century onward. The question of the use of Hagiopolites in patriarchal churches is more complicated. I found that a considerable number of hymnographers belonged to the patriarchal clergy of Hagia Sophia, including many patriarchs. Could Hagiopolites have been an official, second rite of the patriarchate, besides the primary Ecclesiastes rite of Hagia Sophia? The inclusion of stichera and kanons (Hagiopolites hymn genres) in Ecclesiastes services found in eleventh-century sources precludes the simple conclusion that Hagiopolites hymnography by necessity implies the full Hagipolites rite.