École des Sciences Politiques
The École Libre des Sciences Politiques (Private School of Political Studies), cited frequently as the École des Sciences Politiques, was established by a group of European intellectuals, politicians, and businessmen—including Hippolyte Taine, Ernest Renan, Albert Sorel, Pierre Paul Leroy-Beaulieu, and François Guizot—in February 1872. The institution was headed by Émile Boutmy. These men introduced teaching reforms to renew the training of French politicians. The pedagogy differed from the French higher education system of its time by emphasizing the scientific and objective study of the social sciences. The institution was located on the rue Saint-Guillaume in Paris. Royall Tyler attended classes at the École des Sciences Politiques between 1906 and 1908 without taking a degree.