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Introductory Essays

These essays provide historical, political, and archaeological context to each of the garden catalogues.

Tersane Bahçesi and Aynalıkavak Kasrı with the imperial caique with kiosk. Gaznevî Album, İÜK T5461, 25v.

Ottoman Gardens

This catalogue offers essential source information on 114 Ottoman gardens from the fifteenth to the nineteenth century. Although most of the gardens included here are located in the three Ottoman capitals (Bursa, Edirne, and Istanbul), information can also be found on Ottoman gardens in Erzurum, Amasya, and Plovdiv.

Catalogue

Introductory essay

Aerial view of the Alcazaba of Almería.

Andalusian Gardens

The first catalogue in the project, this resource covers twenty-nine Andalusian gardens that were constructed under Umayyad, Almoravid, Almohad, and Nasrid rulers over parts of southern Iberia.

Catalogue

Introductory essay

Kalid bin Walid Bagh, formerly the garden of Ali Mardan Khan, in Peshawar, Pakistan.

Mughal Gardens

The twelve Mughal gardens from the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries selected for this catalogue were all located along the Grand Trunk Road. It traversed the Indian subcontinent, from modern-day Bangladesh to Pakistan.

Catalogue

Introductory essay

Garden area and garden kiosk at al-Rusafa (Sergiopolis), Syria.

Early Islamic Gardens of Greater Syria

This catalogue lists and illustrates seven of the earliest known and documented gardens of the Islamic world between the eighth and ninth centuries. These were all located around modern-day Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, and Iraq, and were part of the Ummayad and Abbasid palace complexes.

Catalogue

Introductory essay

Detail of Ottoman painter Matrakçi’s plan of Tabriz, showing the Bagh-i Sahibabad, 1533–1536.

Safavid Gardens

The nineteen gardens in this catalogue were selected because they were extensively illustrated, including in sixteenth-century Ottoman miniatures and sketches of nineteenth-century European orientalists.

Catalogue

Introductory essay

Khettara in Marrakesh, seen from the sky. Photograph by Mohammed El Faïz, “Garden Strategy of Almohad Sultans” (2007), fig. 3.

North African Gardens

The relative paucity of formal garden spaces in the medieval and early modern Maghrib reveals a relationship with the landscape that differs from elsewhere in the Islamic world.

Catalogue

Introductory essay

Additional essays on Hydraulics and the Atlas Mountains

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