Glossary

Expiración García and J. Esteban Hernández Bermejo

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آس  ās (CC, AA, IW, IH, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Arrayan, myrtle; Arrayán; mirto. See rayhān
أبنوس abnūs (AKh, UM)
Ebony; Ébano (Diospyros ebenum Hiern.). This African species was never cultivated in al-Andalus, but it must have been well-known for the value of its dark, black, and very heavy wood, which consequently meant it was highly appreciated for other diverse noble uses.
أبهل  abhal (AKh, IA, UM)
Savines (?), junipers (?); Sabinas (?), enebros (?) (Juniperus sp.). Although abhal probably distinguishes savines (J. Sabina, J. thurifera, J. phoenicea, among others), the species of Juniperus genus with squamiform (scale-like) leaves, from junipers, with acicular (needle-like leaves), the scarce information provided by the Andalusian agronomists makes this uncertain.
أترج / أترنج  utrujj / utrunj (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Citron; Cidro (Citrus medica L.). The identification of the citron is the species which poses the least doubts of all the citrus plants, undoubtedly since it is the oldest known species in the Mediterranean, as shown by its abundant mention by classic Greco-Roman and Oriental authors.
أثل  athl (AKh, IL, UM)
Oriental tamarisk; Tamarisco oriental (Tamarix aphylla [L.] Karst [= T articulata Vahl. = T. orientalis Forsk.]). This species, with a Sahara-Sindhi distribution ranging from North Africa to Pakistan, has been and is still extensively used as a windbreak and dune-stabilizer, as well as decoration in squares and streets of sub-Saharan towns and locations near the sea. The species could have been perfectly cultivated in al-Andalus in xeric and coastal areas since it also withstands temperatures below freezing in winter.
أرز  arz (IW, AKh, IA, IL, UM)
Cedars and junipers; Cedros y enebros (Cedrus sp., mainly C. atlantica, C. libani; Juniperus sp. [J. oxycedrus, J. communis]). This term gives the impression that it is used for a series of conifers which appear to coincide with the characteristics of cedars and junipers, two genera  that belong to different families, which could be confused or identified as closely related by those without thorough botanical knowledge. This confusion of junipers and cedars predates the Andalusian agronomists, as can be seen in Pliny.
أرقان  arqan (AKh, UM)
Argan, Moroccan ironwood; Argán (Argania spinosa [L.] Skeels). The Argania genus is comprised of a single indigenous species from western Morocco; ‘Umda indicates that it was cultivated in several zones of al-Andalus.
أزادرخت  azādarkhat (IB, AKh, TG, IA, UM)
Bread tree; acederaque (Melia azedarach L.). No Greek, Roman, or Visigoth authors mention this species, and it was first mentioned by Abu ’l-Khayr at the end of the eleventh century and by Ibn al-‘Awwam later in the twelfth century. Consequently, it is highly probable that it was introduced during the Islamic period.
أستنبوذ/أسنبوذ/بستنبون/إستنبوني /إستبوتي  astanbūdh, asanbūdh, bastanbūn, istinbūni, istinbūti (AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Grapefruit tree; Zamboa, azamboa. See zanbū‘.
أمّ غيلان  umm ghaylān (IB, UM)
Acacia producers of gum arabic tree; Acacias productoras de goma arábiga (Acacia abyssinica Hochst. ex Benth., A. arabica Willd, A. nilotica Delile, A. gummifera Delile). The scarce references point to several producer species of gum arabic. These are all small trees or rather small thorny bushes of North African origin, typical of xeric environments. It is likely that the term umm gaylām refers to this group of species, which are better known for their product than as plants.
إجّاص / إنجاص  ijjāṣ / injāṣ (AA, IW, I, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Plum; Ciruelo (Prunus domestica L.). The synonymy between ijjāṣ and ‘uyūn al-baqar (and their variant forms) is clearly shown in several agricultural treatises as well as in ‘Umda. See also uyūn al-baqar.
إهليلج / هليلج / بليلج  ihlīlaj / halīlaj / balīlaj (IW, IB, AKh, IA, UM)
Myrobolam; Mirobálanos (Terminalia sp. [Terminalia chebula Retz], and possibly other species of the same genus such as T. catappa L., T. horrida Steud, T. citrina Roxb ex Flem. and T. bellerica Roxb.).  The scarce information about its morphology, techniques, and cultivation methods suggest that this plant was not grown in al-Andalus but rather imported, as indicated by information about its applications for veterinarian, insecticide, and cosmetic purposes.
بان  bān (AKh, IA, IL)
Ben/behen/behn tree; Ben (Moringa oleifera Lam.). According to several authors, this could be several species, such as Acacia farnesiana, Moringa aptera, M. arabica, M. pterygosperma (= M. oleifera); Salix aegyptiaca (as a synonym of khilaf, willow) and S. tetrasperma. However, we are inclined to propose an identification with Moringa oleifera Lam. It tolerates subtropical/dry environments, and so it is possible that it was cultivated in al-Andalus or, at least, that there were attempts to grow it.
برباريس / باربريس  barbārīs / bārbarīs (Akh, IA, UM)
Barberry; Agracejo (Berberis sp., preferencially B. vulgaris L. and B. hispanica Boiss. & Reuter). The information provided by agronomists is confusing, and this confusion has been a constant throughout its popular history. Nevertheless, ‘Umda dissipates all doubts, since it mentions the yellow color of its bark and the use of this plant as a dye, which are singular features of the Berberis genus.
برقوق  barqūq (CC, IB, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Apricot; Albaricoquero. See mishmish.
بطم  buṭm (IW, IH, IB, AKh, IA, UM)
Terebinth, turpentine tree; Terebinto, cornicabra (Pistacia terebinthus L.). The agronomists note that this a wild deciduous species which in some areas achieves a tree-like size, a characteristic that allows identification.
بقس  baqs (IH, AKh, IA, UM)
Box; Boj (Buxus sempervirens L.). This is a species with medicinal properties, which was widely used in al-Andalus as an ornamental plant.
بقّم  buqqam / baqqam (AKh, UM)
Brazilwood, sappan wood tree; Árbol del brasil, brasilete (Caesalpinia sappan Lam.). It does not seem likely that this tree, with its tropical requirements (originally from India and Malaysia, discovered and introduced in Europe during the Middle Ages), was grown in al-Andalus, despite the references found in the ‘Umda text about certain experiences in several Iberian locations with a rather continental climate.
بلسان  balasān (CC, AA, UM)
Balsam, myrrh tree; Bálsamo, balsamero de Judea (Commiphora opobalsamun Engl.). See murr.
بلّوط  ballūṭ (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Holly Oak; encina (Quercus ilex L., Q. ilex subsp. ballota [Desf.] Samp.). The Arabic term ballūṭ, like the Latin term quercus, refers to the tree and its fruit (acorns). Despite the shortage of morphological data supplied by the Andalusian agronomists about this species, there are no doubts about its identification, given the extensive commentaries about the importance of this tree in an ecological, agronomic, and forestry context of the Iberian peninsula.
بنجنكست  banjankust (IA, UM)
Agnus-Castus; Sauzgatillo. See ḥabb al-faqd.
بندق  bunduq (IW, AKh, IA, UM)
Hazel; Avellano. See jillawz.
تفّاح  tuffāḥ (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Apple; Manzano (Malus domestica [Borhk.] Borhk.). The identification is quite clear, despite the fact that it was probably not a very important fruit tree in the center and southern region of the peninsula; our authors reveal in-depth knowledge of its use.
تفّاح أرميني  tuffāḥ armīni (TG, IA, UM)
“Apricot of Armenia,” apricot; Manzana de Armenia, albaricoquero. See mishmish.
تفّاح فارسي  tuffāḥ fārisī (IA, UM)
“Persian peach,” peach; Manzano persa, melocotonero. See khawkh.
تمر هندي  tamar hindī (AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Tamarind; Tamarindo (Tamarindus indica L.). Dioscorides is the only classical author that mentions this plant, although perhaps he never knew of it personally. After this historical gap, the species reappears when it is mentioned at the end of the eleventh century and beginning of the twelfth century by authors such as Abu ’l-Khayr and al-Tighnari and later on, by Ibn al-‘Awwam and Ibn Luyun, who discussed several of its properties and usage methods.
توت  tūt (CC, AA, IW, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL)
Mulberry, black mulberry; Moral, morera (Morus nigra L., Morus alba L.). There are clear references to the Morus genus, which include mulberries and blackberries, but there is still some doubt as to how many species the authors mention. One of them, the black mulberry (Morus nigra), originally from western Asia, was an extensively known species in the Greek and Roman periods. The other, the white mulberry (Morus alba), is originally from central and eastern China. Its introduction to al-Andalus is attributed to Syrian troops, who settled in different areas of present-day Andalusia in the mid-eighth century. Its cultivation must have rapidly spread, since there are numerous references to the care of silkworms and the silk trade, which we find in diverse Arabic sources dating from the tenth century.
تين  tīn (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Fig tree; Higuera (Ficus carica L.). Despite the fact that none of the authors describe the appearance of the plant, leaves, or fruit, there is no doubt about its identification. It involves the Ficus carica in its two forms: the fig and the wild fig (“cabrahígo” or “higuera loca”). The numerous varieties listed, thirteen with specific names, plus other classifications by color, size, fruit-bearing season, and adaptation to different climates and terrains, attest to its extensive cultivation in al-Andalus.
جلّنار  jullanar (CC, IB, AKh, TG, IA, UM)
Wild pomegranate, “balaustra”; pomegranate flower; Granado silvestre, balaustra; flor del granado (Punica granatum L. in their uncultivated varieties). The polysemic term jullanar, derived from Persian, is used in Arabic to designate both the pomegranate flowers as well as its wild species.
جلّوز  jillawz (AA, IW, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Hazel; Avellano (Corylus avellana L, and also its hybrids with C. colurna L. and C. maxima Miller). Its identification in philological terms leaves no room for doubt, although the morphological characteristics are not clear. The hazelnut trees mentioned by our authors must correspond to the hybrids of several species from the Corylus genus present in southern Europe and northern Africa.
جمّيز  jummayz (IB, AKh, IA, IL, UM)
Sycamore; Sicomoro (Ficus sycomorus L.). In order to obtain significant production, the sycamore requires very hot and dry land throughout the entire year, which would limit its potential cultivation area in the peninsula. It therefore seems very improbable that it was cultivated in al-Andalus.
جناء أحمر  janā’ ahmar (IB, AKh, IA, UM)
Strawberry tree; Madroño (Arbutus unedo L.). The Arabic name of this species (literally “red crop”) is justified by both the reddish color of the duramen of its wood and its use as a dye, known since antiquity in North Africa.
جوز  jawz (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Walnut; Nogal (Juglans regia L.). The identification of jawz as the European walnut (Juglans regia) offers few doubts if we consider the observations about its agronomy and uses.
حب العروس  ḥabb al-‘arūs (IW, IA, IL, UM)
Cubeb; Cubeba (Piper cubeba L.). Since it is a tropical species, it must have only been known in al-Andalus from trade.
حبّ  abb (IB, TG, IL)
Cherry; Cerezo. See abb al-mulūk.
حبّ الفقد  abb al-faqd (IA, UM)
Agnus-castus; Sauzgatillo (Vitex agnus-castus Kurz.). The Agnus-castus is a wild species, abundant in the riverbanks of al-Andalus together with the oleanders and other riparious species. It is occasionally cultivated in gardens now, but perhaps only its wild populations were used in the past.
حبّ الملوك  abb al-mulūk (CC, AA, IB, AKh, TG, IA)
Cherry; Cerezo (Prunus avium L.). Al-Tighnari, like other authors, uses the synonyms abb al-mulūk and qarāṣiyā (and their variant forms: qarāsiyā, jaramiya, and, as it is called in Ifriqiya, jarasiya), although the first of these terms was used in the common language of al-Andalus, as confirmed by Umda text. Its reference to varieties conveys a sense of its notable diversity.
حلّب  ullab (IB, UM)
Bushweed; Tamujo. See ‘awsaj saghīr.
حنّاء  innā’ (CC, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Privet; Alheña (Lawsonia inermis L.). The exact description of its cultivation causes us to think that it must have been grown in al-Andalus and that this tradition was subsequently abandoned. “Aligustre” (privet) has been used as a substitute for the Spanish term “alheña” (Ligustrum vulgare), but this plant is represented in the Iberian flora by a species with a northern distribution.
حور  awr (TG, IA, IL, UM)
White poplar; Álamo blanco (Populus alba L.). We can identify this species with certainty thanks to ‘Umda, since we find several diagnostic characteristics in this botanical work which differentiate it from both the black poplar (Populus nigra) and the elms (Ulmus sp.).
حور رومي awr rūmī (IA, UM)
Black poplar, poplar; Álamo negro, chopo. See nasham aswad.
خرنوب khurnūb (IW, IH, AKh,TG, UM)
Carob; Algarrobo. See kharrūb.
خروع / خرواع khirwa‘ / khirwā‘ (AKh, IA, UM)
Castor-oil plant; Ricino (Ricinus communis L.). There is no difficulty identifying this species  philologically, although agronomists do not mention its diagnostic characteristics.
خرّوب kharrūb (IW, IH, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Carob; Algarrobo (Ceratonia siliqua L.). The morphological information provided by the agronomists agrees and clearly defines the carob tree, although it is scarce.
خلاف khilāf (IW, IH, AKh, UM)
Willow; Sauce. See ṣafṣāf.
خوخ khawkh (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Peach; Melocotonero (Prunus persica [L.] Batsch.). There is no doubt about the identification of this tree. From the detailed information provided in the Andalusian agricultural and botanical texts, it is clear that this was an extensively cultivated species.
خيار شنبر khiyār shanbar (IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Senna, cannafístula tree; Sen, cañafístula (Cassia obovata Colled, C. acutifolia Delile, C. angustifolia Vahl., Cassia fistula L.) Despite the minimal data provided by the agricultural treatises, we can deduce that they refer to one of the different types of senna, among which only the senna of Spain (Cassia obovata) was grown on the Iberian peninsula. On the other hand, specific uses mentioned indicate another Cassia species, the cannafistula tree, which would not have been cultivated in al-Andalus but was known and used in different fields such as medicine and pharmacology. References to both identifications are made in ‘Umda, which provides more specific data.
دار صيني dār ṣinī (IA, UM)
Cassia bark, China cassia; Batavia cassia. Canelero de China, casia de China; casia de Batavia (Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees in Wall. = C. cassia L.; Cinnamomum burmanni Blume). This species served as a substitute for Ceylon cinnamon. None of these plants could be grown in al-Andalus due to their tropical nature, and were only acquired through trade.
دالية dālīyah (AA, IW, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL)
Grapevine; Parra. See karm.
دردار dardār (AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Ash; Fresno (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl., F. ornus L.). We primarily identify dardār as Fraxinus angustifolia. However, ‘Umda refers to other species further north which could be the ash (F. excelsior) and manna ash (F. ornus).
دفلى diflá (IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Oleander; Adelfa (Nerium oleander L.). There is not much doubt about the identification of this species, since even the morphological data jointly with its toxicity and poisonous character make it quite unmistakable. It is interesting to verify its inclusion and mention by different authors, since they provide evidence about its longtime and extensive use as an ornamental plant. It is worth highlighting the reference to flower varieties with different colors and perhaps multiple flowers (“adelfa real”), which reveals its traditional and prolonged garden usage in spite of its toxicity.
دلب dulb (IW, AKh, IA, UM)
Oriental plane, maples; Plátano de sombra, arces (Platanus orientalis L., Acer sp.). The texts do not provide sufficiently solid arguments to establish a conclusive identification; the dulb term designates P. orientalis but it also applies to several species of the Acer genus.
دهمست dahmast (IA, UM)
Laurel, berry of this tree; Laurel, baya de este árbol. See rand.
دوم dawm (IH, IB, AKh, UM)
Dwarf fan palm; Palmito (Chamaerops humilis L.). Unlike the previous species of palm (muql), we identify this as the wild and indigenous species of al-Andalus. This dwarf palm, concisely but familiarly mentioned by the Andalusian authors, appears to be the dwarf fan palm (Chamaerops humilis), the only native Arecaceae species in Europe.
ذادي / ذاذي / داذي dhādī / dhādhī / dādhī (AKh, IA, UM)
Judas tree; Ciclamor (Cercis siliquastrum L.). The identification of this tree as Cercis siliquastrum is sufficiently clear based on the information from two agronomists, which is corroborated by that from ‘Umda. The general physiognomy of the tree as described and its preferential use in gardens leaves no margin for doubt.
ذكّار dhukkār (AKh, IA, IL, UM)
Wild fig; Cabrahígo. See tīn.
رتم ratam (AH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Broom; Retama (Retama sphaerocarpa [L.] Boiss.). The Spanish retama is related to the Arab word ratam. The agricultural texts only allow us to identify the broom (“retama de bolas”) or Retama sphaerocarpa, which was very abundant in al-Andalus. However, ‘Umda clearly distinguishes a white broom (Retama spaherocarpa), and in others appear the so-called “black brooms,” three other “varieties” (Cytisus scoparius, Genista florida, and Cytisus purgans), and a third block of broom species comprised by “hiniestas” or “aulagas” (Genista scorpius).
رقع raq‘ / ruqa‘ (AKh, IA, UM)
Poison nut tree; Árbol de la nuez vómica (Trichilia emetica Vahl [= Elcaja emetica Forsk.], T. roka [Forsk.] Chivo [= Elcaja roka Forsk].). The identity of this species, known in al-Andalus only through trade, is uncertain. Commonly, it is accepted that the drug extracted from the seeds of this plant was introduced in Europe in the sixteenth century and that its use in Western medicine dates from 1640, when it was chiefly used to poison animals and as denaturation agent of alcohol. Its toxicity is due to the presence of akaloids such as strychnine and brucine in the endosperm of its seeds.
رمّان rummān (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Pomegranate; Granado (Punica granatum L.). The scarce morphological data that the agricultural texts provide do not positively identify the species, but they do point toward the pomegranate when they cite a small tree with a subtropical character. The fruit-bearing nature and agronomic techniques are what unmistakably allow us to identify the pomegranate (Punica granatum), a species originally from the Near East that was widely cultivated throughout the Mediterranean basin from an early period. They highlight several uses similar to its current use, which include its ornamental nature and its capacity to form hedges.
رند rand (CC, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Laurel; Laurel (Laurus nobilis L.). There is no doubt about the correct identification of this species. Among its multiple uses of major ethnobotanical interest cited by Andalusian authors, we highlight its ornamental use.
ريحان rayhān (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Arrayan, myrtle; Arrayán, mirto (Myrtus communis L.). The Myrtus genus has been used since antiquity for ornamental, medicinal, and other purposes by diverse cultures in the Mediterranean basin. Although the Andalusian authors do not include much descriptive information, they do emphasize its ornamental use, which suggests some very exceptional applications in the garden.
زان zān (AKh)
Alder; Aliso (Alnus glutinosa [L.] Gaertner). Although there are still doubts about the identification of this species, after the analysis of the information supplied by ‘Umda in comparison with another series of botanical arguments, we think that it could very well be the alder.
زعرور za‘rūr (IH, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Azarole; Acerolo (Crataegus azarolus L.). There is major confusion about this species among the Andalusian agronomists, their respective translators, and other authors. The description from ‘Umda clarifies this, since its morphological characteristics (the shape of the leaves which are described as divided, the presence of thorns on the branches and red fruit) correspond to the azarole.
زفيزف / زفزف zufayzaf / zifzif (IB, IA)
Jujube; azufaifo. See ‘unnāb.
زنبوج zanbūj (IH, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Wild olive, wild olive tree; acebuche, olivo silvestre (Olea europaea var. sylvestris Brot.). From the commentaries by several agronomists on its cultivation, it is evident, beyond its simple and apparently wild character, that there is a close relation between the olive and the wild olive. This is not a question of kinship but unity of origin.
زنبوع zanbū‘ (AKh, TG, IA, IL)
Grapefruit tree; Zamboa, azamboa (Citrus grandis [L.] Osbeck.). The Arabic origins of the Spanish term “zamboa” (grapefruit tree) is unmistakable. It used to designate a type of quince or different citrus species, specifically the grapefruit.
زيتون zaytūn (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Olive; olivo (Olea europea L.). The olive is undoubtedly the primary crop in the Andalusian agricultural landscape of the period under consideration, and its cultivation produced an accumulation of agronomic literature that few species can match. The Andalusian agronomists were no exception, adding their perspective to the common ethnobotanical knowledge of this species in the Mediterranean. They compiled a great deal of knowledge about this totem fruit-bearing tree, some already known, but fragments appear and indicate ideas that are currently accepted as novelties in the world of olive cultivation. These ideas, as proved here, have their origin in popular and empirical knowledge that dates back many centuries.
زيتون برّي zaytūn barrī (TG, IA, UM)
Wild olive, wild olive tree; Acebuche, olivo silvestre. See zanbūj.
ساج sāj (IW, AKh, IA, UM)
Teak; Teca (Tectona grandis L.). It is evident that the Tectona genus was only known by the Andalusian authors by means of commercial exchanges or indirectly from references in eastern sources. Their commentaries are curiously marginal in relation to the interest of this wood, which is very highly valued today for its outdoor uses.
سبستان sabastān (IB, IA, IL, UM)
Sebestan; Sebestén. See mukhayṭah.
سرو sarw (IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Cypress; Ciprés (Cupressus sempervirens L.). We identify this species as the common cypress (Cupressus sempervirens) of Mediterranean origin. The importance of its cultivation, which can be deduced by its extensive treatment and uses, especially its ornamental use in garden walls and corners, support this practically certain identification.
سرول sarwal (AKh, TG)
Cypress; Ciprés. See sarw.
سفرجل safarjal (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Quince; Membrillo (Cydonia oblonga Mill.). Its identification is certain. In addition to the allusions by agronomists, we observe that it was considered a relatively rustic tree that did not require cultivation.
سمّاق summāq (CC, AKh, IA, UM)
Sumac; Zumaque (Rhus coriaria L.). The identification of this species is not very certain based on the cultivation and morphological data. As in other cases, ‘Umda provides more complete and extensive information, which facilitates its identification.
سنديان sindiyān (IW, IA, UM)
Oaks; robles (Quercus pyrenaica Willd., Q. Petraea (Mattuschzka) Liebl., Q. robur L., or Quercus sp.). Under this term, it is possible to determine that, among all the trees with galls, the Andalusian agronomists are referring to the deciduous trees which comprise the forests, that is, those that we can generically denominate as “oaks,” or as ‘Umda affirms, to all trees with acorns, such as the entire ballūṭ species.
شالج / سالج shālij / sālij (IA, UM)
Willow; Sauce. See ṣafṣāf.
شاه بلّوط shāh ballūṭ (CC, AA, IW, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Chestnut; Castaño (Castanea sativa Miller). Its identification is certain.
شبر shubir (IA, UM)
Cork oak; Alcornoque (Quercus suber L.). The word shubir (from the Latin suber) is sufficiently eloquent to identify this species, as well as several precise morphological observations made by ‘Umda. The uses mentioned by Ibn al-‘Awwam in his discussion about cork are still valid today.
شجر اللبان shajar al-lubān (IB, UM)
Incense tree, incense, frankincense; Árbol del incienso, incienso, olíbano (Boswellia carteri Birdw.). The Arabic lubān, a synonym of kundur (both derived from Greek), is applied to the resin extracted from several trees of the Boswellia genus. ‘Umda lists the Romance-language name that it was given in al-Andalus, shansiyu, which means incense.
شكوس shakūs (IA, UM)
Rockrose; Jaras (Cistus sp.). Shakūs (with the variant form, shaqwas) was the common name used in al-Andalus to designate several Cistaceae species; however, the terms most commonly used to name them were istibb (from the Latin stipa) and qistūs (and variants, from the Greek κισσός). Both were applied in a generic way to this extensive family, although frequently they were restricted to a specific species. On occasion, it is therefore extremely difficult to exactly determine the species mentioned by the Andalusian authors.
شمشار shamshār (AKh, UM)
Box; Boj. See baqs.
شوحط shawḥaṭ (AKh, UM)
Yew; Tejo. See ṭakhsh.
صفصاف ṣafṣāf (AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Willows; Sauces (Salix alba L.). afṣāf is used by Andalusian agronomists and botanists for diverse willow species and other trees with a similar appearance. The primary correspondence is established with the white willow, the most abundant species of the genus in the Iberian peninsula, although there could be other Salix species, such as the Salix atrocinera Brot., S. purpurea L., or S. viminalis L.
صفيراء ṣufayrā’ (AKh, IA, UM)
Maples; Arces (Acer pseudoplatanus L., A. granatense Boiss., A. campestre L., and A. opalus Miller). The term ṣufayrā, meaning “yellowish,” is applied to various species, as is clearly explained in ‘Umda. Among the scarce morphological details which the agronomists cite, there seems to be a suggestion of the infertility of some species as opposed to the fruit-bearing nature of others. This characteristic seems to be related to the partial dioecia of the Acer genus; the ṣufayrā of the agronomists would basically correspond to the species of this genus.
صندل ṣandal (AKh, IA, UM)
Sandalwood; Sándalo (Santalum album L.). Apart from those references to the timber species (Santalum album), the majority of allusions to sandal in agricultural texts are to herbaceous members of the Mentha genus. The agronomists do not provide any information about the cultivation of the shrub species, which were used as incense and in the perfume industry, thus confirming its absence from al-Andalus. In any case, they must have known the species through its use rather than its cultivation.
صنوبر ṣanawbar (CC, CA, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Pines; Pinos (Pinus sp., preferentially Pinus pinea L.). The species of the Pinus genus in general are mentioned and well identified under this term, although the authors primarily use it to refer to the Pinus pinea, the species with the greatest agricultural interest due to its edible pine nuts. In addition to its diverse nutritional purposes, its ornamental interest is clearly mentioned.
صنوبر أحمر ṣanawbar aḥmar (AA, AKh)
Umbrella pine, Scots pine, or common pine; Pino albar, pino bermejo (Pinus sylvestris L.). Although it was not the most abundant pine in al-Andalus, this species would have been (as it currently is) very well-known and valued for its excellent wood covered with reddish bark. Nonetheless, there remains some doubt about its identification, since P. pinaster is currently known in several areas of Spain as the reddish pine.
ضرو ḍarw (AA, IW, UM)
Mastic shrub; Lentisco (Pistacia sp., preferentially P. lentiscus L.). We have not found sufficiently clear information in the descriptions or in the uses described by the agronomists to positively identify the species to which they refer. Rather, it seems to be a generic term. ‘Umda has clarified the information and helps us to confirm this opinion, since the term ḍarw is applied to several Anacardiaceae species, different but related to the peanut.
طخش ṭakhsh (AKh, UM)
Yew; Tejo (Taxus baccata L.). There seems to be no doubt as to the identification of this tree species. According to certain authors, it is a group of species with a very ancient origin, which fragmented into very similar microspecies, and which commonly appear scattered throughout the northern hemisphere.
طرفاء ṭarfā’ (IW, AKh, IA, IL, UM)
Tamarisk; Taraje, taray (Tamarix africana Poiret, T. canariensis Willd.). The potential Andalusian tamarisk trees, like all the Iberian ones, correspond to the following species: Tamarix Africana Poiret, T. canariensis Willd., T. gallica L., T. parviflora D.C., and T. boveana Bunge.The first two were probably the most common in al-Andalus.
ظيّان ẓayyān (AKh, IA, IL, UM)
Wild jasmine; Jazmín silvestre (Jasminum fruticans L.); Clematis; clemátide (Clematis vitalba and C. flammula). This identification is certain, since the only wild species in al-Andalus is J. fruticans, where the flower color matches the yellow flower indicated by Ibn al-‘Awwam. In relation to the white flower cited by this agronomist, we are inclined to think of a clematis with a white flower (Clematis vitalba and C. flammula are two ideal candidates for this description).
عرعر / عرعار ‘ar‘ar / ‘ar‘ār (AKh, IA, IL, UM)
Savines (?), junipers (?); Sabinas (?), enebros (?) (Juniperus sp.; Tetraclinis articulate Mast. [?]). The term ‘ar‘ar is still used to designate the Barbary cypress (Tetraclinis articulata), a species of North African distribution (northern Algeria and Morocco). Its similarity, not only to the cypress, but especially to the savines, suggests that it could have been used to designate one of these species. Nevertheless, the limits of the use and application of the term between savines and junipers are not clear.
عريش ‘arīsh (IW, IH, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Grapevine; Parra. See karm.
عفص ‘afṣ (IW, IH, AKh, UM)
Lusitanian oaks; Quejigos (Quercus faginea grex [incl. Q. Faginea Lam. and Q. canariensis Will.]). Despite scarce information from the agricultural texts, exact morphological data in ‘Umda permits certain identification.
علّيق ‘ullayq (IW, IB, AKh, IA, IL, UM)
Bramble, blackberry; Zarza, zarzamora (Rubus ulmifolius Schott.). According to the agronomists, we can only identify the plants commonly called brambles or blackberry bushes that we associate with R. ulmifolius, since the Rubus genus is an extremely complex group that is difficult to classify even relying on modern techniques. It is interesting to recognize its use for the construction of boundary markers and hedges.
عنب ‘inab (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Vine, grape; Vid, uvas. See karm.
عنّاب ‘unnāb (CC, IW, IH, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Jujube; Azufaifo, azofaifo (Ziziphus jujuba Miller). The scholarly name for this tree was ‘unnāb, while zifzif was used in common speech. It is a foreign species, which was grown for its fruit.
عوسج ‘awsaj (AA, IW, IB, AKh, IA, UM)
Wolfberry/boxthorn, black thorn; Cambrón, espino negro (Lycium intricatum Boiss.). Since Dioscorides, these wolfberry species have been denominated rhamnus. The mention of fruits used as food and the fact that they are mentioned by agronomists as cultivated species encourage us to think that this was the Lycium intricatum. Nevertheless, ‘Umda also includes several Lycium species under this term, which is understandable, given that the general physiognomy of all these species is very similar.
عوسج أحمر ‘awsaj aḥmar (IA, UM)
Buckthorn (?); Aladierno (?) (Rhamnus alaternus L. [?]). The scarce data about this species provided by the texts does not make it possible to positively identify it, but the fact that they name and differentiate it as a "red thorn" (literal translation of ‘awsaj aḥmar) may be evidence that this could be the buckthorn, which is also known today as the red thorn.
عوسج صغير ‘awsaj saghīr (IW, IB, IA, UM)
Bushweed; Tamujo (Fluggea tinctorea [L.] G. L. Webster). Despite the slight data in the agronomists’ texts, we can make an identification thanks to ‘Umda, which mentions certain accurate diagnostic characteristics, such as how the species was used in the manufacture of brooms or in the defense of boundaries.
عيون البقر / عين / عيون / عنبقر / عبقر ‘uyūn al-baqar / ‘ayn / ‘uyūn / ‘anbaqar / ‘abqar (CC, AA, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Plum; Ciruelo (Prunus domestica L.). ‘Umda, which mentions multiple varieties of this species, and the agricultural work by al-Tighnari clearly show that ijjāṣ was the term used in educated circles to designate the plum tree, while ‘uyūn al-baqar and its variants was the most common term used by the people. See also ijjāṣ.
غار ghār (IW, AKh, IA, UM).
Laurel; Laurel. See rand.
غبيراء ghubayrā’ (IW, IH, AKh, IA)
Service tree; Serbal (Sorbus domestica L.). The agronomists agree on the use of the fruits and consumption methods and its phenological information.
غرب gharab (IW, IA, UM)
Willow; Sauce. See ṣafṣāf.
فرسك firsik (IL, UM)
Peach; Melocotonero. See khawkh.
فرصاد firṣad (AA, IA, IL, UM)
Mulberry; Moral. See tūt.
فستق fustuq (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Pistachio, peanut; Pistacho, alfónsigo (Pistacia vera L.). Originally from central Asia but widespread throughout the Near East from an early period, this species was undoubtedly well-known and extensively grown in al-Andalus, although its cultivation was lost following the Hispano-Arabic age and it was not introduced again until very recently.
فلفل fulful (IW, IB, IA, UM)
Black pepper, common pepper; Pimentero, árbol de la pimienta negra (Piper nigrum L.). References provided by agronomists and ‘Umda provide clear evidence that this plant was only known by travelers who came from India. In al-Andalus as in other countries in the medieval period, it was one of the most expensive and highly valued spices in luxury cuisines.
قافور qāfūr (IW, IA, IL, UM)
Camphor; Alcanfor (Cinnamomum camphora [L.] Sich.). In all probability, this species must have been known from its consumption and trade, but it was not grown in al-Andalus, due to its tropical nature. ‘Umda is clear that this product was imported from China or India.
قراصيا / قراسيا qarāṣiyā / qarāsiyā (IW, IH, AKh, TG, IA)
Cherry; Cerezo. See abb al-mulūk.
قرفة qirfah (AKh, IA, UM)
Cinnamon tree, Ceylon cinnamon tree; Árbol de la canela, canelero de Ceilán (Cinnamomum verum J. S. Presl. = C. Zeylanicum Blume). The minimal comments by Andalusian agronomists only allow us to say that this aromatic species was not cultivated in al-Andalus, and the lack of morphological descriptions appears to indicate that it was not a well-known species, apart from its commercial product.
قسطل qasṭal (CC, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Chestnut; Castaño. See shāh ballūṭ.
قصب qasab (IW, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Reed, screen, giant reed; Caña, cañizo, cañavera (Arundo donax L.). According to the information provided by the agronomists, it appears that this species was effectively a crop in that period, not surprising given the major use of this reed for all types of agricultural structures (screens, roofs, fences and palisades, windbreaks, stakes for climbers, vines, etc.).
قصب البنيان qaṣab al-bunyān (IA)
Bulrush, cattail, reedmace; Anea, enea, espadaña (Typha sp. [T. angustifolia L., T. domingensis (Pers.) Steudel]). The data from the Andalusian agronomists about this apparently wild reed are both scarce and confusing, except for brief allusions to its ecology and abundance. It is reasonable to suppose, due to their frequency in riverbanks and the emergence of phreatic waters, that they refer to Thypha sp.
قصب الحلو qasab al-ḥulw (AKh, TG, IA)
Sugarcane; Caña de azúcar. See qasab al-sukkar.
قصب السكر qasab al-sukkar (AA, IH, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Sugarcane; Caña de azúcar (Saccharum officinarum L.). The identification is certain. The information that the agronomists provide reveals an acceptable level of experience with this species, whose cultivation was introduced and consolidated during the period of Muslim rule.
قصب القند qasab al-qand (TG)
Sugarcane; Caña de azúcar. See qasab al-sukkar.
قصب فارسي qasab fārisī (TG, IA, UM)
Reed grass; Carrizo (Phragmites australis [Cav.] Trin. ex Steudel). Dioscorides provides information, preserved by al-Ṭighnarī, about this species’s medicinal virtues, some of which area conserved by tradition, such as the treatment for alopecia.
قرنفل qaranful (AKh, IA, IL, UM)
Clove; Clavero (Syzigium aromaticum [L.] Merr. & Parry = Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb. = E. aromatica Baill. non Berg.). This species must have been well-known from use and trade, but we doubt that it was grown anywhere in al-Andalus since the clove, originally from the Molucca Islands is now cultivated throughout many tropical regions worldwide, would not have resisted the cold Iberian winters. In any case, the use of this species was introduced to the Iberian peninsula by the Arabs, as neither Isidore of Seville nor Columela mention it, although it is cited by Pliny.
قوطينون qūṭīnūn (IH, IA, UM)
Wild olive, wild olive tree; Acebuche, olivo silvestre. See zanbūj.
قيقب qayqab (IH, AKh, IA, UM)
Hackberry tree; Almez. See mays.
كاذي kādhī (AKh, IA, UM)
Screw pine; Pándano (Pandanus odoratissimus L. f.). In spite of the scarce information provided by the agricultural texts, the information from ‘Umda permits the identification of this species, "abundant in Arabia and India" but absent from Andalusian agriculture. Even so, it is very likely that the essences distilled from the screw pines, well-known and widely used in the East, reached al-Andalus.
كبّابة kubbābah (IL, UM)
Cubeb; Cubeba. See ḥabb al-‘arūs.
كتم katam (AKh, IA)
Phillyrea; Labiérnago (Phillyrea angustifolia L. and Ph. latifolia L.). The information provided by the two agricultural texts, corroborated and expanded by ‘Umda, permits the identification of this Arabic plant name, frequently translated incorrectly as privet (“aligustre”) (Ligustrum), with these two varieties of Phillyrea.
كرم karm (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Vine; Vid (Vitis vinifera L.). The identification is clear, although some authors propose different species and/or subspecies for the group of cultivated and semi-wild vines; the most widespread opinion is that it exclusively involves the Vitis vinifera with an extensive range of forms, varieties, and cultivation modes.
كمّثرى / إجّاص / إنجاص kummathrá / ijjāṣ / injāṣ (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Pear; Peral (Pyrus communis L. and other wild species of Pyrus). The agronomic texts of al-Andalus clearly show that kummathrá and ijjāṣ (with its variant form, iinjāṣ) both refer to the pear tree, but with a distinction: the more theoretical works are primarily based on oriental sources (AA, IW, IH, AKh) which only use the term kummathrá for the pear tree, whereas the works with a greater practical importance and which (totally or partially) follow the Andalusian sources use ijjāṣ and, more sporadically, the former term to designate this species. Furthermore, the term ijjāṣ refers to the plum tree in scientific circles, whereas the common people used it for the pear tree.
لبان lubān (IB, UM)
Incense tree; Árbol del incienso. See shajar al-lubān.
لوز lawz (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Almond; Almendro (Prunus dulcis [Miller] D. A. Webb). There is no doubt about the identification of this Arabic plant name.
ليم līm (AKh, IL, UM)
Lime tree; Limero (Citrus aurantifolia [Christm.] Swingle, C. limetta Risso, C. limettioides Tanaka). In AKh the term līm is very likely to be an alteration of the text for laymūn, since the lime tree is not mentioned by this name in any treatise until the fourteenth century (IL). See laymūn.
ليمون / لامون / لمون laymūn / lāmun / lamūn (IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Lemon tree, lime tree; Limonero, limero (Citrus limon [L.] Burm., C. aurantifolia [Christm.] Swingle, C. limetta Risso, C. limettioides Tanaka). The term laymūn (and its variant forms) has been translated in a traditional way and by phonetic affinity as “lemon” in both agricultural treatises and other types of sources. However, there are a series of characteristics that incline us to think of limes instead of lemons. ‘Umda, under the heading of the aforementioned name, mentions the lemon as well as several types of limes, and the features it analyzes, in the majority of cases, are applicable to both lemons and limes. Thus, we can say that laymūn appears to correspond to a heterogeneous group of limes that could include some state of the hybridization processes which gave rise to the lemon.
مثنان maṭnān (IA, UM)
Daphne; Torvisco (Daphne gnidium L.). It is obvious that this species, frequently found in Mediterranean thickets, must not have been grown but was well-known for several of its properties (which include purging agents), since it is mentioned by ancient authors such as Dioscorides and Isidore of Seville.
محلب maḥlab (IB, AKh, IA)
Mahaleb cherry, Saint Lucie cherry; Mahaleb, cerezo de Santa Lucía (Prunus mahaleb L.). There is no reason to doubt this identification because its name and use have been consolidated as rootstock as mentioned by the agricultural texts. However, the agronomists provide only scarce morphological features. Several characteristics mentioned in ‘Umda coincide with those of this species, but not in a sufficiently specific way to distinguish it from other wild and thorny Prunus species, such as P. insititia or P. spinosa, although these can also be occasionally mentioned as "wild plum trees."
مخيطة / مخيطى / مخطى mukhayṭah / mukhayṭá / mukhatá (CC, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Sebestan; Sebestén (Cordia myxa L.). It is practically certain that this is the Cordia myxa, a species which appeared among the main elements of the diet of the Arabic and Ethiopian peoples, even during the Roman period. Without a doubt, this could be the first mention of this species in the western Mediterranean. Although it was cultivated in al-Andalus as a primary crop, it disappeared from Iberian agriculture after the Islamic period.
مرّ murr (IH, IL)
Myrrh; Mirra (Commiphora myrrha Engl.). The products obtained from this Burseraceae species were used in al-Andalus, but with almost complete certainty none of these species were grown there. Authors prior to Pliny or Isidore of Seville also mention them.
مشتهى mushtahá (CC, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Whitebeam; Mostajo (Sorbus aria [L.] Crantz.). Although its identification is relatively clear, the discussion of this species by several authors, such as al-Tighnari, could also refer to the azarole (Crataegus azarolus).
مشمش / مشماش mishmish / mishmāsh (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Apricot; Albaricoquero (Prunus armeniaca L.). The term mishmish (and its variant form) is the Arabic term for apricot used in al-Andalus and the Maghreb in educated literary language, while the term barqūq was more commonly used in everyday speech.
مصاع / مصع muṣā‘ / muṣa‘ (AKh, IL, UM)
Medlar; Níspero (Mespilus germanica L.). In contrast to very scarce information supplied by the agricultural treatises about this species, ‘Umda provides a fairly clear description. Nonetheless, there is still some confusion between the azarole and medlar among the agronomists, who do not mention the medlar, with the exception of Abu ’l-Khayr and Ibn Luyun.
مضغ maḍagh (IA)
Hawthorn, European hawthorn; Espino de majuelas, espino albar, majuelo (Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). Ibn al-‘Awwam is the only Andalusian agronomist who mentions it; he provides an accurate morphological description although it is very brief. It is logical that he dedicates little attention to this species, since it was probably never grown and was only used in its wild form.
مقل muql (IH, IB, AKh, UM)
Egyptian palm; Palmera egipcia (Hyphaene thebaica [L.] Mart.). We believe that the information in the agronomists about this species was either based on their reading of the Nabataean Agriculture or, at most, from their travels in the eastern Mediterranean, and that it was possibly never cultivated in al-Andalus. We identify it with the H. thebaica, the dawm palm tree of the Arabs or from Egypt, frequently confused with that species See dawm.
مقل muql (IW, UM)
African birch; Bedelio africano (Commiphora africana [A. Rich.] Engl.). See murr.
موز mawz (AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Banana; Platanera (Musa sp. [M. acuminata Colla, M. balbisiana Colla, M. textiles Née]). Both Arabic agronomists and historical-geographical sources mention its cultivation, associated with sugarcane, by the tenth century on the Granada coast. Different varieties of at least one or two edible fruit species arrived (Musa acuminata, M. balbisiana), and we do not know if M. textiles, Manila hemp (abacá) was present as well, since there was mention of banana trees used as fibers in the manufacture of paper sheets.
ميس mays (AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Hackberry tree; Almez, almezo, latón, lirón (Celtis australis L.). There are problems, beginning with the philological aspect, to correctly identify the tree called mays in Arabic, the root of the Spanish “almez.” However, the morphological and ecological characteristics found in ‘Umda in reference to qayqab / mays provide a solution. The agronomists highlight the excellent virtues of this tree, which was extensively planted in boundaries, fences, and near walls and water conduits, and which was highly valued for its shade, beauty, fruit, and above all, for its flexible and elastic wood.
ميعة may‘ah (IB, IA, UM)
Storax tree; Estoraque (Styrax officinale L.). Although this species grows in tropical regions and was therefore probably not cultivated in al-Andalus, it could have been known and used.
نارنج nāranj (AA, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Sour orange tree; Naranjo amargo (Citrus aurantium L.). The majority of the morphological characteristics recorded in the agricultural texts could be valid both for the proposed species as well as citrus trees in general; only the phonetic association with the orange unmistakable points to the bitter orange.
نبق nabq (AA, AKh, IA, UM)
Lotus tree; Loto, arto, árbol del paraíso (Ziziphus lotus [L.] Lam.). References to this species by the Andalusian agronomists are not completely clear, but with the help of ‘Umda, under the heading ‘Unnāb, there is a great possibility that it refers to the lotus. On the other hand, the evidence that this species was used as a living hedge, present in the Madinat al-Zahra’ environs until the present day, allows us to think that the Ziziphus lotus must have been known by our authors. Another synonym for nabq appears in the same work, sidr, which means that it is the tree whose fruit is named nabq, an opinion which is widely shared by other authors. The agronomists make minimal references to the sidr, and do not include any determining diagnostic characteristics. Despite the synononymy between nabq and sidr as equivalents of Ziziphus lotus, the second term is also recorded in ‘Umda as a generic name applied to diverse groups of very large and thorny trees, both wild and cultivated. Likewise, this botanical treatise indicates that sidr is the tree mentioned in the Koran which provides shade in Paradise and, indeed, it is a species venerated in the Islamic traditions (thus its translation as the tree of paradise). Other potential identifications of the word sidr are Paliurus spina-christi Mill. (a well-known species since Dioscorides), and the Ziziphus spina-christi (L.) Willd (Rhamnus spina-christi L). Both species have a more eastern distribution, especially the second, and do not appear as wild plants in al-Andalus.
نخل nakhl (IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Date palm; Palmera datilera (Phoenix dactylifera L.). This is a species with unmistakeable identification. The date palm could well be the universal tree of Andalusian agronomic culture, or at least of the Arab culture of the Hispano-Arabic period from the eastern Mediterranean and North Africa. The date palm offers not only the nutrition of its dates, which are consumed in varied ways, but also fibers and materials used for handicrafts, construction, shade, and decoration in the garden, although this was not specifically mentioned.
نخيل nakhīl (IB, TG, UM)
Date palm; Palmera datilera. See nakhl.
نسرين nisrīn (AA, IH, AKh, IA, IL, UM)
Musk rose, dog rose; Mosqueta, agavanzo (Rosa sp.). See ward jabalī.
نشم nasham (AA, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Elm; Olmo (Ulmus sp., mainly Ulmus minor Miller [= U. campestris auct. Non L.]). Nasham is used as a common term for several tree species similar to the elm. In fact, it appears to have applied to various species, which include diverse deciduous riverbank trees, such as black and white poplars, willows, ash, and elms. However, as also specifically derived from philological analysis, we conclude its identification with the elms, preferentially with Ulmus minor Miller.
نشم أبيض nasham abyaḍ (TG, IL, UM)
Hackberry tree; Almez. See mays.
نشم أسود nasham aswad (TG, IA, IL, UM)
Black poplar, poplar; Álamo negro, chopo (Populus nigra L.). By means of information from ‘Umda, we can clearly distinguish the Arabic terms which refer to elms and to white and black poplars. In this case, we identify nasham aswad and hawr rūmī with Populus nigra. In the agronomists’ texts, we find a few rare comments about accurate diagnostic characteristics for this species, such as its diocus nature: “it bears no fruit, since it is male.”
نشم قبري nasham qabrī (AKh, UM)
Birch; Abedul (Betula sp.; probably Betula fontqueri Roth.). There are many difficulties involved in the identification of this species, given the minimal data that Abu ’l-Khayr provides in his agricultural treatise; however, we have managed this identification by means of the specific morphological and ecological data which this author includes in his botanical work, ‘Umda.
ورد ward (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Roses/rose bushes; Rosales (Rosa sp. pl.). Although the association of the term ward with the cultivated rose is unmistakable, there are clear allusions in the Andalusian agricultural texts to the wild roses that correspond to diverse species (R. gallica, R. pouzinii, R. canina, R. sempervirens, R. micrantha, R. moschata); they could be included jointly or separately as ward jabalī, ward al-kalb, and ward barri. Hence, it is complicated to accurately match the different rose species that the authors mention with the different types of ward, a task further complicated by the inclusion of species of Asian origin and hybrids with the already complex group of native species. In summary, under the different meanings of ward, we have the group of roses from a Mediterranean environment and we suspect that rose bushes from the Far East were introduced, but we also highlight the clear references to the use of improvement techniques to obtain new varieties and forms, which used the entire group’s gene pool.
ورد بري ward barrī (AA, UM)
Wild rose, dog rose, rose hip; Rosal silvestre, agavanzo, escaramujo (Rosa sp.). See ward jabalī.
ورد الكلب ward al-kalb (IA)
Dog rose, wild rose; Rosal perruno, rosal silvestre (Rosa sp.). See ward jabalī.
ورد جبلي ward jabalī (TG, IA, UM)
Mountain rose, musk rose, dog rose; Rosal montés, mosqueta, agavanzo, rosal perruno (Rosa sp., wild roses, perhaps primarily Rosa canina L.). The wild or montesino rose has received different Arabic names.
ياسمين / يسمين yāsamīn / yasmīn (CC, AA, IW, IH, IB, AKh, TG, IA, IL, UM)
Jasmine; Jazmín (Jasminum sp. [Jasminum officinale L., incl. J. grandiflorum L.]). The term yāsamīn has a Persian origin. Independently of its phonetic association, the morphological information confirms that it is the Jasminum genus, but the cultivation/harvest methods and techniques in the agricultural texts do not allow us to determine which species were known in that age, since they are valid for the entire genus. In summary, we can say that we face an ambiguous term which designates different species, including at least two jasmine plants (J. fruticans, J. officinale), and probably a third (J. grandiflorum), as well as other climber species. The polysemy of jasmine is not unusual since, in modern Spanish, it is used in combination with different adjectives to name a large number of climber plants which do not necessarily have a botanical relation with the Jasminum genus.