Multilingual Glossary

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A

āb
Water; river; prosperity, power, glory. The word is often used in compounds and metaphorical expressions. (STG) (Persian)
āb afshān
āb + afshān (in comp.) dispersing, scattering, diffusing. (STG) (Persian)
āb anbār
āb + anbār pond, reservoir. (STG) (Persian)
āb bāra
āb + bāra aqueduct; an elevated structure of masonry used for the conveyance of water from place to place. (Persian)
āb guẕar
Canal, channel for water. (STG) (Persian)
āb khīz
Spring, issue of water; springy ground, where water is found after digging a little depth; canal, aqueduct. (STG) (Persian)
āb khvur
Lake, pool, ditch; fountainhead; watering place on a riverbank. (STG) (Persian)
āb namā
āb + namā (showing) a shallow water basin usually in front of a building in gardens. (Persian)
āb pāshān
Name of a Persian festival, on which occasion one sprinkles rose water on his neighbor. (STG) (Persian)
āb pakhshān
āb + bakhsh or pakhsh (division). The word bakhsh as well as the term bāgh, “garden,” derive from the same root bagh, meaning “partition.” (Persian)
āb rāh
Canal, conduit, pipe, aqueduct, watercourse, channel of a river, any place through which water flows. (STG) (Persian)
āb rāha
Watercourse. (STG) (Persian)
āb rīzān
Name of the thirteenth day of the month of Tir. Recalls the sudden rainfall, after many years of drought, at the prayer of the assembled people, who in their joy sprinkled each other with water. (STG) (Persian)
āb rīzgān
Festival celebrated on the thirteenth day of the month of Tir, during which people visit each other and sprinkle orange blossom, rose, or pure water on one another. (STG) (Persian)
āb rasānī
āb + rasānī to cause to arrive, convey, carry and deliver. (STG) (Persian)
āb yārī
Irrigation, to irrigate; āb yārī kardan to water fields. (STG) (Persian)
ābād
City, building, habitation; cultivated, peopled, full of buildings and inhabitants. When added to a noun it denotes a city or place of abode. (STG) (Persian)
ābād kardan
To cultivate, render delightful, improve, recreate, refresh. (STG) (Persian)
ābān
Eight month of Persian year, during which the sun continues in Scorpio; tenth day of any Persian month; name of a certain angel, whom the pagan Persians supposed to preside over iron and over the actions performed during the month or on the day above mentioned. (STG) (Persian)
ābāngāh
Tenth day of the month of Farvardin; name of an angel said to preside over water. (STG) (Persian)
āb-dih
Splendor-giving. (STG) (Persian)
āb-e-ravān
Flowing water. (F.U.E.D) (C.C) (Urdu)
āb-e-hayāt
Elixir of life. (F.U.E.D) (B.S) (Urdu)
āb-i barīn
Bank of a river constantly being undermined by its current. (STG) (Persian)
ābdān
Vessel holding water; cistern, or any reservoir of water, such as a lake, ditch, or bath (STG); pond, lake, confluence of water. (JNS) (Persian)
ābgīna
Glass; the heavens. (STG) (Persian)
ābgah
Watering place, cistern, reservoir. (STG) (Persian)
ābgir
Large water body; lake. (S.N) (Urdu)
ābishkhvur
Cistern, watering place, reservoir; riverbed; fountainhead; lot, portion. (STG) (Persian)
ābsāl
Garden. (STG) (Persian)
ābsālān
Garden. (STG) (Persian)
ābshār
Cascade of water. (Tadhkira) (Urdu)
ābshār
Waterfall, cataract. (STG) (Persian)
ābshīb
Waterfall. (Persian)
ābyār
Waterer, sprinkler, irrigator, irrigation. (STG) (Persian)
āpādānā
Loggia supported by columns or great columned room. (Persian)
ārāmgāh
Place of rest; tomb, mausoleum. (STG) (Persian)
ārāmgāh
Bedchamber; resting or halting place. (F.D) (SN) (Urdu)
ārāstan
To adorn, decorate, embellish, to set in order; gul ārāstan to adorn with flowers (gul). (STG) (Persian)
āshkūy
Palace; upper room; elevated place. (STG) (Persian)
āyina khānah
Loggia or room in which the columns and part of the walls and ceilings are covered with small pieces of glass (CST); āyina glass + khānah house. (Persian)
āyinakāri
Decorative mirrors. (STG) (Persian)
āzhgan
Latticed door, lattices. (STG) (Persian)
ābgīr
Any hollow place where water collects or stagnates; pool, pond, ditch. (STG) (Persian)
ābgina khānah
Greenhouse, room hung with mirrors; the first and second heavens. (STG) (Persian)
açmak
To bloom, to blossom, to come into flower. (R) (LEH) (Turkish)
adama
Soil; ground. (Hebrew)
admat trashim
Rocky land unfit for cultivation. (Hebrew)
afar
Earth, dirt. (Hebrew)
afrang
Magnificence, grandeur, power; throne; crown; European, Frank, (STG) (Persian)
ağaçlık
Full of trees, well wooded, dell, wood, woodland. (R) (ARK) (KAM) (HAY) (MED) (TDK) (ARS) (Turkish)
agdâl
Synonym of buhaira. (Arabic)
agromechanika
Care and maintenance of agricultural machinery. (Hebrew)
agronome
Agronomist. (Hebrew)
agronomia
Agronomy. (Hebrew)
agrotechnika
The variety of methods used to work a farm. (Hebrew)
akarut
Working the land; agriculture. (Hebrew)
akirah
Uprooting, extraction. (Hebrew)
alāchīq
Felt tents. (STG) (Persian)
aleh
Leaf; frond. (Hebrew)
alvah
Foliage. (Hebrew)
anāristān
Pomegranate garden. (STG) (Persian)
anīsh
Small garden; vineyard. (STG) (Persian)
anaf
Branch, frond, sprig. (Hebrew)
andarūnī
Internal. (STG) (Persian)
angūristān
Vineyard. (STG) (Persian)
araya
Fruit harvest. (Hebrew)
ardībihish
Second Persian month, mid-spring, April; the third day of every month, which the Persians celebrated with a festival; the angel who presides over the mountains. (STG) (Persian)
arsa
Courtyard within a house, unbuilt space (classical Arabic); irrigated garden smaller than an agdal. (Arabic)
arugah
Flowerbed. (Hebrew)
asb
Horse. (STG) (Persian)
asbris
Course; race ground; open space; running place for horses; hippodrome; polo field; unit of measure of distance equal to what a person could cover between the first ray of sun and the appearance of the whole disc (experimentally measured between 147 m and 185 m). (STG) (Persian)
ashjār
Plants including shrubs and trees. (S.B) (Urdu)
aşı
Grafting, budding; scion, graft, bud (put into the stock). (R) (NA) (Turkish)
aşı kalemi
Cutting used for grafting, scion. (R) (HAY) (Turkish)
aşılama
To graft, bud. (R) (TDK) (KAM) (HAY) (Turkish)
asis
Nectar. (Hebrew)
assif
Grain harvest. (Hebrew)
atzhitz
Flowerpot, planter. (Hebrew)
avodath adama
Agriculture, working the land. (Hebrew)
avoq
Spreading of powder. (Hebrew)
awrang
Throne; glory; heaven. (STG) (Persian)
a’yin
Fountain, natural source of water. (Hebrew)
ays
Woodland. (FED) (Turkish)
ayvān
Sofa; portico, open gallery, veranda; balcony on the top of a house, for the benefit of the view and fresh air; palace; the heavens; ayvān-i zarkārī sphere of the moon; ayvān-i māh heaven of this world. (STG) (Persian)
ayvān-i kasrā
kisrā, from Pahlavi Chosroes. (STG) (Persian)
azhār
Flowers; flowering, blossoming. (STG) (Persian)

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B

bāgh
Generally refers to an orchard with or without fence or wall. When a bagh is a formal garden it is enclosed by a diwar (wall), and when it belongs to a qasr (palace gardens) it is enclosed by a hisār (fortification wall). It includes orchards such as bādāmi bāgh (the garden of almonds), and anguri bāgh (the garden of grapes or vineyard). In literary texts bāgh appears as both a prime and ancillary source of imagery of nature. As a poetic image, it stands for order and beauty, the mythical link between man and nature, heaven and earth. When used in Persian literature it refers comprehensively to all the natural wonders within a garden. (B.N) (F.U.E.D) (B.S) (Urdu)
bāgh
Garden; vineyard; the world; face of the beloved (STG) (Persian).
bāgh-i iram
Name of the fabulous gardens, said to have been devised by Shaddād in emulation of the gardens of paradise. (STG) (Persian)
bāgh-i quds
The firmament; paradise. (STG) (Persian)
bāgh-i rafi'
The firmament; paradise. (STG) (Persian)
bāgh-i sakhā
The firmament; paradise. (STG) (Persian)
bāgh-i takht
Terrace; bāgh garden + takht throne. (Persian)
bāgh-i vasi'
The firmament; paradise. (STG) (Persian)
bāghbān
Gardener. (F.D) (B.K) (Urdu)
bāghbān
Gardener; vine dresser. (STG) (Persian)
bāghbāni
Care of a garden, horticulture; bāghbāni numūdan to keep or dress a garden, to practice horticulture. (STG) (Persian)
bāghcha
Small garden, a garden. (STG) (Persian)
bāghcha
Small garden or orchard usually associated with residences. (F.U.E.D) (B.N) (Urdu)
bāghcha bandī
Ornamental gardening; bāghcha bandī kardan to lay out in flowerbeds. (STG) (Persian)
bāghistān
Land of gardens. (B.S.) (Urdu)
bāghistān
Vineyard; palace park; gardens and vineyards surrounding a town. (STG) (Persian)
bālākhānah
Upper chamber, gallery, or balcony on top of the house; parlor. (STG) (Persian)
bār
Fruit, flowers, blossom; court, assembly; curtain at the door of a pavilion; bār dādan to grant an audience; bār-i ‘ām public audience. (STG) (Persian)
bārū
Wall, rampart, bulwark, fortification; fort; tower; battlements, embrasures. (STG) (Persian)
bār-i cām
Public audience. (STG) (Persian)
bāra
Walls, fortifications, anything which divides or separates two objects; bāra-yi nuhum the ninth heaven. (STG) (Persian)
bārgāh
Place of leave or admission applied to ambassadors and supplicants, i.e. the king’s court, palace, tent, tribunal, audience hall. (STG) (Persian)
bīdistān
Grove of willows, osier-bed. (STG) (Persian)
bīrūnī
External. (STG) (Persian)
bīsha
Forest, wood, wild, uncultivated country; country overgrown with reeds and the like. (STG) (Persian)
bīsutūn
Without pillars; name of a mountain in Persia; the heavens. (STG) (Persian)
bīyābān
Uncultivated, deserted; desert. (STG) (Persian)
būm
Country, region; desert land not yet cultivated; mansion or place where one dwells in safety. (STG) (Persian)
Būstān
Baghscontaining aromatic flowering plants spreading sweet scented smells; vegetable garden. (F.D) (B.S) (Urdu)
būstān (pl. basātīn)
Place of perfume, garden, kitchen garden, green space; name of many Arabian and Persian books, the most celebrated of which is the Būstān-i Sa‛dī. (STG) (Persian)
būy
Odor, fragrance, perfume; scent, spice; portion, part, lot. (STG) (Persian)
bachir
The first fruit to ripen. (Hebrew)
bad
Enclosure, hedge, fence. (TRM) (Turkish)
badıralan
Garden or vineyard without walls. (TRM) (Turkish)
bağ
Vineyard, garden, orchard. (R) (NA) (ARS) (TDK) (KAM) (Turkish)
bağ aralamak
To prune the vines. (R) (TRM) (Turkish)
bağ ayıtlamak
To prune a vineyard, to prune. (MEN) (Turkish)
bağ bahçe
Vineyards and orchards. (R) (TDK) (Turkish)
bağ bozumu
Vintage (R); autumn. (TRM) (Turkish)
bağ budaması
To prune a vineyard. (R) (TRM) (Turkish)
bağ çapası
Hoe, mattock. (TRM) (Turkish)
bağ çırpmak
To prune, to trim the vine. (TRM) (Turkish)
bağ çubuğu
Vine shoot, vine cutting. (R) (TDK) (TRM) (KUB) (Turkish)
bağ depmek
To dig, to fork, to grub, and to spade a garden or vineyard. (TRM) (Turkish)
bağ-ı cennet
Garden of paradise. (R) (TÜR) (Turkish)
bağ makası
Pruning shears. (TRM) (Turkish)
bağ-ı adn
The garden of Eden. (R) (Turkish)
bağ-ı cinan
Garden of paradise. (R) (NA) (RIZ) (Turkish)
bağ-ı dehr
The garden of the world. (R) (YED) (Turkish)
bağ-ı İrem
Garden of Iram (R); the mythical gardens said to have been made in Damascus or Yemen alike paradise. (YED) (KUB) (Turkish)
bağcı
Grape grower (R); vine grower, “viticulturist.” (TRM) (Turkish)
bağcı bıçağı
Pruning knife. (TRM) (Turkish)
bağça
Synonym of çimen; meadow, lawn, turf, orchard. (MEN) (Turkish)
bağçe
Synonym of bahçe; garden, small vineyard. (R) (MED) (DGA) (TRM) (KUB); garden where vegetables and flowers are grown. (ATI) (Turkish)
bağçevan
Synonym of bağcıvan; gardener. (R) (MED) (OSM) (KAM) (DGA) (MÜK) (KUB) (Turkish)
bagh
Ditch (Z. bagho); name of an idol; a god; baghdād God-given, in the composition of names. (STG) (Persian)
baghistān
bagh god + istān place. (Persian)
bağıstan
Garden, vineyard, orchard. (OTS) (OSM) (MED) (Turkish)
bağlık
Place with vineyards, piece of ground suitable for a vineyard; tract with many vineyards. (R) (TDK) (TRM) (KUB) (TEM) (Turkish)
bağlık bahçelik
Place with many vineyards and gardens. (TDK) (MED) (KUB) (Turkish)
bahār
Spring season. In classical literature, various seasons in a garden are associated with appropriate moods. For example, khiza’n (autumn) was associated with sadness and bahar (spring) with happiness and prosperity. This is expressed for instance in Bāgh-o-bahār tabiyat (jovial nature) and dil bāgh bāgh ho jana (being happy). (F.U.E.D) (C. C) (Urdu)
bahār
Spring, beginning of summer; blossom; bahār-i nārinj orange flower; Buddhist temple; idol, the harem of a prince; species of odoriferous herb; anything beautiful and splendid; bahār afshān scattering blossoms; bahārān spring; bahār band airy house inhabited in springtime; a place where horses are tied up in spring; bahār khāna any high building. (Persian)
bahārkhvāb
The text refers to the bahārkhvāb of the Khvaju bridge in Isfahan. That place was unique, as it had a better view and was cooler than the arcades above the bridge and the terraces below the arches. (Persian)
bahar açmak
To blossom. (NA) (HAY) (Turkish)
bahçe
Garden, park (R) (NA); vegetable garden, kitchen garden, place where flowers and trees are grown (TDK) (OSM); place where flowers, trees, and vegetables are grown (ARK); place where flowers, trees with or without fruits, and vegetables are grown, usually adjacent to a house; same as ravza, bağ, firdevs, bostan: çiçek bahçesi, sebze bahçesi (KAM); small vineyard; place where flowers and vegetables are grown, park (MED); (Ottoman bağçe, ravza, hadîka) (ARS); enclosed place where flowers, trees and vegetables are grown. (TRM) (TEM) (RTK) (YTL) (VLD) (KUB) (Turkish)
bahçe
Synonym of bahça, bağçe; garden, park. (R) (NA) (Turkish)
bahçe aletleri
Garden tools (TRM) (Turkish)
bahçe avlu
Court garden, courtyard garden; courtyard where there are lawn and flower beds; in cloisters, hospital, or jails, uncovered garden for patients or prisoners to get fresh air and to walk, surrounded with buildings. (ARS) (Turkish)
bahçe avlusu
Garden yard, a courtyard with lawn and flower beds in the middle. (TRM) (Turkish)
bahçe çapası
Hoe, mattock. (TRM) (Turkish)
bahçe evi
Small summer house in the vineyards. (TRM) (Turkish)
bahçe köşkü
Garden pavilion. (NA) (Turkish)
bahçe makası
Pruning shears. (NA) (KUB) (Turkish)
bahçe tarağı
Rake to put the garden soil in order. (TRM) (Turkish)
bahçe tırmığı
Rake, a tool with iron teeth to clear the soil off stones and litter. (TRM) (Turkish)
bahçecilik
Horticulture, gardening (MED) (KAM) (TDK); the art of gardening (TRM); growing every kind of plants such as vegetables, young plants, fruits (KUB); making and growing gardens. (TEM) (Turkish)
bahçeli kent
Garden city, a city enclosed with a green belt. (ÇEV) (Turkish)
bahçelik
Place full of gardens (R); place for vineyards and gardens (TDK); a place with many gardens (KAM); (HAY); a place with many gardens, a place suitable to make garden (MED); full of gardens or a place suitable to make garden (TRM); a place full of gardens. (RTK) (VLD) (KUB) (Turkish)
bahçıvan
Gardener (R) (NA) (TDK) (KAM) (HAY) (MED) (LEH); Gardener, “horticulturist.” (Turkish)
bahçıvan bıçağı
Pruning shears. (TRM) (Turkish)
bahçıvan tarağı
Rake. (R) (ARS) (Turkish)
bahâristân
Springtime, green place with many flowers; spring, place of verdure and blossom. (R) (NA) (FED) (OSM) (KUB) (Turkish)
bak
Retreat, asylum; forest, wild uncultivated country. (STG) (Persian)
balça
Garden. (RİZ) (Turkish)
ban
Garden, sown field; harvest; van Persian turpentine seed. (STG) (Persian)
banafsha zār
banafsha pūsh covered or adorned with violets. (STG) (Persian)
band
Dam, dike, or any enclosure of water. (STG) (Persian)
bandāb
Dyke, embankment; island. (STG) (Persian)
bao’li/wain
Step well, the descent to the brink of which is by long flights of steps with landings and covered chambers where travelers may rest during the heat of the day. (F.U.E.D) (B.N) (S.N) (Urdu)
barādari
Open pavilion constructed either of brick, marble, or red sandstone. This term seems to be of recent origin as it is not found in Mughal sources. It may be a corruption of the term baran dar aaien (to enter in the rain). (F.D) (T.A.L) (Urdu)
bara
Cut or uproot trees. (Hebrew)
baram
Trellis. (STG) (Persian)
barı
To shelter, to protect (R); garden wall, fence (TDK) (KAM); garden or courtyard wall. (ZAN) (Turkish)
barınak
Shelter, refuge (R) (Ottoman melce); penthouse, open shed in the gardens and in the streets to shelter from rain and sun. (ARS) (Turkish)
barm
Reservoir for rainwater. (STG) (Persian)
barsam
Rods of a span in length used by the fire-worshipers in their ceremonies. (STG) (Persian)
basāk
Garland of flowers. (STG) (Persian)
basāt
Extensive (tract of country); anything spread out; carpet; bedding; the earth. (STG) (Persian)
basha
A general name for weeds growing among cultivated plants and impeding their growth. (Hebrew)
bazmgāh
Banqueting house. (STG) (Persian)
behisht
A paradise (F.U.E.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
belleme
To dig over with a fork or spade. (R) (ZAN) (Turkish)
berçin
Walled garden, walled field. (TRM) (Turkish)
berhûn
Hedge, fence. (FED) (OSM) (Turkish)
beshola
Ripe fruit. (Hebrew)
besâtîn
Gardens (R); vegetable gardens, melon gardens, kitchen gardens. (FED) (ATI) (LEH) (Turkish)
beyûn
Synonym of bâin; large well. (FED) (Turkish)
bihisht
Paradise; heaven; bihisht zār place like heaven. (STG) (Persian)
bikurim
The first fruits that were presented in the Temple on the holiday of Shavu’ot (Pentecost). (Hebrew)
birka
Reservoir of water, pond, pool, ditch. (STG) (Persian)
bisārah
Bench; portico, veranda. (STG) (Persian)
bisārdah
Plowed; watered. (STG) (Persian)
bisārdan
To plow, to break up fallow ground. (STG) (Persian)
bitek
Fertile soil. (R) (TDK) (KAM) (Turkish)
bitelge
Fertility of the soil. (TDK) (Turkish)
bor
Fallow; uncultivated field. (Hebrew)
borit, birit
Strap or tie that binds a plow-shaft to the knees of the plower. (Hebrew)
boriyot
Trees and other orchard species that are damaged and do not bear fruit. (Hebrew)
bosem
A good and pleasant fragrance from various plants. (Hebrew)
bostan
Garden, vegetable garden, melon garden, kitchen garden (R) (NA) (TDK); synonym of çemen, çemenzar, sebzezar, yeşillik, yeşilistan, murğuzar, bağça, büstan, kiştzar, çayır, sebzistan (MEN); garden; vegetable garden (ATI); garden, flower garden vegetable garden, melon, watermelon (KAM); (LEH); field where melons and watermelons are grown, common term for melon and watermelon, cucumber (MED); kitchen garden, vegetable garden, melon garden; a common term for melon and watermelon, cucumber (TRM); large vegetable garden. (TRK) (Turkish)
bostan beli
Gardener’s spade with a very long handle. (R) (TRM) (Turkish)
bostan beygiri
Horse that turns a waterwheel. (R) (KUB) (Turkish)
bostan çapası
Garden hoe. (TRM) (Turkish)
bostan dolabı
Noria, waterwheel for irrigation. (R) (TDK) (ARS) (TRM) (ARS) (KUB) (Turkish)
bostan korkuluğu
Scarecrow. (R) (TDK) (MED) (HAY) (TRM) (KUB) (Turkish)
bostan kuyusu
Large but not very deep well (TRM); well large enough and with sufficient water for the waterwheel to turn and water the garden. (KUB) (Turkish)
bostancı
Market gardener, vegetable gardener; member of the Ottoman imperial guard (R) (NA); gardener of an orchard, guards of the imperial gardens (guarded the imperial court court as well as imperial gardens) (TDK) (HAY); gardener of an orchard, guards of the imperial gardens, Ottoman imperial guards who had jurisdiction over the imperial gardens and shores and waters of the Bosphorus (HUK) (TEM) (TRH) (VLD) (KUB); synonym of bağçaci, bağçavan, bağçaban, büstani, büsti, salataci, bakkal, bakıl, tere-füruş, sebze-füruş, budayici (MEN); synonym of hadîka-bân (LEH); gardener of an orchard, guards of the imperial gardens. (TRM) (Turkish)
bostancıbaşı
Ottoman commander of the imperial guards who had jurisdiction over the imperial gardens and shores and waters of the Bosporos. (R) (NA) (OTR) (TDS) (KUB) (Turkish)
botanika
Botany. (Hebrew)
boustropedon
An ancient method of writing in which the lines are inscribed alternately from right to left and from left to right the way an ox turns while plowing. (Hebrew)
bozmak
To harvest grapes, vintage (TDK); to harvest the fruits of a garden. (ATI) (KUB) (Turkish)
buhaira
Garden designed around a huge water reservoir and surrounded by fortified walls. (Arabic)
bunāb
The bottom or depth of water. (STG) (Persian)
burj
Tower; dovecote; constellation of stars; station of a planet. (STG) (Persian)
burun
Tip, pointed end. (R) (NA) (Turkish)
bustān farāz
Rose bed. (STG) (Persian)
bustānārāy
Gardener. (Persian)
bustānbān
Gardener, vine dresser. (STG) (Persian)
bustānchi
Gardener (MUN). (Persian)
bustānī
Hortulan; gardener. (STG) (Persian)
bustānpirā
Gardener, vine dresser. (STG) (Persian)
bustānsārāy
Palace garden. (STG) (Persian)
bustan
Orchard cultivated for profit and pleasure (Morocco). (Arabic)
bustan
Orchard. (Hebrew)
b'chira
The first rains of the season. (Hebrew)
bâğ-ı bahar
Spring garden (R); spring garden, promenade, world. (FED) (Turkish)
bâgat
Vineyards, gardens, orchards. (FED) (ATI) (OTS) (Turkish)
bâğbân
Gardener, vine grower. (R) (NA) (BAH) (KAM) (FED) (RTK) (Turkish)
bâğistan
Place full of many gardens and vineyards. (KUB) (FED) (KAM) (Turkish)
bâin
Large well. (FED) (OKS) (Turkish)
bûstân
Garden, flower garden, full of perfume. (FED) (MÜK) (KUB) (Turkish)
bûstân-bân
Gardener. (FED) (Turkish)
bīl
Shovel, spade; oar; gardener, vine dresser; well (in Zand and Pāzand). (STG) (Persian)

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C

camekân
Greenhouse; glasshouse, hothouse, conservatory. (ARS) (HAY) (TRM) (Turkish)
camlı köşk
Glasshouse. (ARS) (TDK) (KUB) (Turkish)
camlık
Place shut in with glass. (R) (TDK) (KAM) (MED) (HAY) (MED) (LEH) (ARS) (KUB) (Turkish)
carmen
Spanish form of the Arabic karm vineyard, or domain planted with vineyards. In al-Andalus, a garden with connotations of pleasant retirement. In agricultural texts of al-Andalus, karm (pl. kurum) is an agricultural domain forming an entity, and in Nasrid Granada (fourteenth century), it implies both agricultural use and residential leisure. (Arabic)
cennân
Gardener (FED) (Turkish)
cennât
Plural of paradise, heaven (R) (FED); full of trees, garden, watery place (OTS); gardens of paradise. (FED) (Turkish)
chādur
Water chute or sheet. Chādur was introduced when a watercourse falls from a high level. Literally, chādur means “sheet,” but as an architectural element it is a waterfall over which water flows down like a sheet. It constitutes an important element of visual design. Marble and sandstones were carved in various patterns, angles, and forms so that when water runs over them, the water produced an interesting texture and sound. The Nishat garden in Kashmir is perhaps the finest example where water chutes are used at almost every level difference. (S.N) (Urdu)
chādur
Tent, pavilion; chādur-i āb waterfall, cascade; chādur-i lājavard the azure sky, a verdant meadow. (STG) (Persian)
chāh
Well. There ware three main sources of the supply of water to the gardens: canal, wells, and rainwater. Lands watered via canals are termed nehri, those by wells chāhi, and those by rainwater barani. During the Mughal period doabs (land between two rivers) were mostly irrigated by chāhi. (F.U.E.D) (Bayaz) (Urdu)
chāl
Ravine. (STG) (Persian)
chīnī khāna
Place where china is kept; an apartment adorned with china. (STG) (Persian)
chīna
Course of bricks or stone in a wall; layers of large stones, bricks, or turfs in building walls. (STG) (Persian)
chūbbast
Scaffold. (STG) (Persian)
chūgh
Yoke; trench or canal cut through gardens or meadows; dam. (STG) (Persian)
chabutra
Raised bank or terrace; platform. (F.U.E.D) (T.J) (Urdu)
chafror
Mattock. (Hebrew)
chaft
Saloon built of wood and supported on columns; prop, trellis; chaft-i falak the celestial vault (STG) (Persian)
chafta
Prop for a vine; bat; vaulted roof. (STG) (Persian)
chahār bālish
Royal throne, place spread with four cushions; the four elements; the four quarters of the globe; the world; quadrangular tent. (STG) (Persian)
chahār basit
The four elements. (STG) (Persian)
chahār chaman
The world. (STG) (Persian)
chahār dāng
The four quarters. (STG) (Persian)
chahār divār
The four quarters of the world; the four elements (water, earth, wind, and fire). (STG) (Persian)
chahār divāri/chahār divār
Enclosure wall, four walls enclosing any ground/structure. (S.N) (Urdu)
chahār hāshīya
Having four borders. (STG) (Persian)
chahār jūy
Rivers of paradise. (STG) (Persian)
chahār sūq
Marketplace. (STG) (Persian)
chahār tāq
A kind of tent. (STG) (Persian)
chahārbāgh
chārbāgh a palace; chārbāgh name of celebrated royal gardens in the environs of Ispahan and near Dehli, hence in general a royal garden or park. (STG) (Persian)
chahārpāra
Four parts; divided into or consisting of four parts. (STG) (Persian)
chaiad
Everlasting; aizoon. (Hebrew)
chaklai
Farmer (Hebrew)
chakla'ut
Agriculture; farming. (Hebrew)
chalok, chelek
Smooth stone, pebble. (Hebrew)
chamānīdan
To walk gracefully; chamān walking; cham an easy air, a swinging or vacillating motion in walking; chaman gard walking about in the gardens; chaman sair = chaman sayr promenading in the gardens; chaman suffa a garden seat; chaman tarāz gardener; chaman pīrā gardener; chaman band gardener; chamansāz gardener; chaman afrūz brightening the garden (applied to various flowers) (STG); chamish a portly gait in walking. (Persian)
chamama
Greenhouse. (Hebrew)
chaman
Vineyards and orchards, particularly orchards of pomegranates. Flowering shrubs are also an integral part of a chaman and different varieties of flowering plants provide a visual delight and promote spiritual solace. Generally lacks a pavilion or any other architectural embellishment. Vines are allowed to dominate the landscape. Large bāghs frequently contain smaller sections designed as chaman. Chamans are planted with sabza (grass); hence the term is also used to denote a meadow. (F.U.E.D) (Qasâ’id) (Urdu)
chaman
Orchard, fruit garden; meadow, green field, verdant plain, garden plot or bed, raised border, parterre, avenue; pasture ground. (STG) (Persian)
chaman band
Gardener; fountain. (STG) (Persian)
chaman pīrā
Gardener, pruner. (STG) (Persian)
chaman pirân
Gardener designers dealing with planting. (F.U.E.D) (Qasâ’id) (Urdu)
chamanistān
Verdant meadows. (STG) (Persian)
chamanzār
Verdant meadows; prairie. (STG) (Persian)
chamra
Red loam. (Hebrew)
chanat
Ripen. (Hebrew)
chapar
Palisade; wooden hut. (STG) (Persian)
charaba
A knife for figs. (Hebrew)
charish
Plowing; plowing season. (Hebrew)
charisha
Plowing. (Hebrew)
charisha
Grove. (Hebrew)
charsit
Red soil; clay. (Hebrew)
charul
Thom, nettle, bramble. (Hebrew)
chashma
Spring. (F.U.E.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
chasina
Wicker basket. (Hebrew)
chativa
Cutting, chopping. (Hebrew)
chatr
Umbrella, parasol (especially as an ensign of royalty); tent. (STG) (Persian)
chatzatz
Rubble; gravel. (Hebrew)
chatzer
Yard, court, enclosure in village or town. (Hebrew)
chava
Farm, ranch. (Hebrew)
chavai
Farmer. (Hebrew)
chavaot
Farming. (Hebrew)
chavilla
Villa. (Hebrew)
chawgān
The game of polo or horse shinty; stick having one end arched, to which is suspended an iron or steel ball, carried as an ensign of royalty. (STG) (Persian)
chekal
Field. (Hebrew)
cheled
World; earth. (Hebrew)
chelka
Field plot; lot. (Hebrew)
chenet, chanita
Ripening. (Hebrew)
chermesh
Sickle. (Hebrew)
chermeshit
Curved knife (a small sickle). (Hebrew)
cherut
Palm branch, palm leaf. (Hebrew)
chevla
Property; estate. (Hebrew)
chihil sutūn
Colonnade. (STG) (Persian)
chināristān
Place where china is kept; an apartment adorned with china. (STG) (Persian)
chiposhit
Beetle. (Hebrew)
chirāghān
An illumination. (STG) (Persian)
chisa
Bushes, brush. (Hebrew)
chishma
Fountain, source, spring; a vaulted arch; chishma-yi akhz̤ar fountain of immortality; chishma-yi pul arch of a bridge; chishma-yi khiz̤r and chishma-yi nūsh fountain of life; chishma-yi salsabīl spring or river in paradise. (STG) (Persian)
chishma-yi shīr
Stream of milk in paradise. (MUN) (Persian)
chocher
Renter, tenant, lessee. (Hebrew)
chol
Sand. (Hebrew)
choma
Wall. (Hebrew)
choref
Winter. (Hebrew)
choresh, chorsha
Grove. (Hebrew)
choter
Branch that emerges from the tree trunk close to the roots. (Hebrew)
chotev
Woodcutter. (Hebrew)
ciba
Small garden, courtyard. (TRM) (Turkish)
cirid
Synonym of cirit; stick used as a dart in the mounted game of jereed. (R) (NA) (Turkish)
çahar-bağ
Synonym of cahar bağ; a Persian garden-type divided by two paths into four sections. (NA) (Turkish)
çalılık
Thicket, bushes, brushwood. (R) (MEN) (ARS) (MED) (Turkish)
çapalamak
To hoe. (R) (TDK) (Turkish)
çardak
Pergola, trellis, bower, gazebo. (R) (NA) (KAM) (MED) (ARS) (LEH) (MED) (TRM) (TEM) (Turkish)
çarh-ı âb-kesî
Persian waterwheel (R); as bostan dolabı, noria, waterwheel for irrigation. (FED) (Turkish)
çelik aşısı
Bud into the stock, grafting, budding. (MED) (Turkish)
çelki
Garden cottage, vineyard hut. (TRM) (Turkish)
çemenbend
Gardener. (R) (OTS) (Turkish)
çemenistân
Meadow land, garden. (HAY) (OSM) (FED) (KUB) (Turkish)
çemenzâr
Synonym of çemenistân, meadowland; green meadow, grassy plot (R) (MEN) (NA); meadowland, garden. (TRK) (Turkish)
çemenârâ
Gardener. (R) (FED) (Turkish)
çengel
Full of trees, wooded, wood, copse, bush. (OSM) (OTS) (Turkish)
çeper
Wall, fence (R) (TDK-2); small garden, small vegetable garden (KAM) (TRM); stone garden wall. (ZAN) (Turkish)
çepin
Gardener's hoe, small hoe. (R) (TDK) (KAM) (TRM) (TEM) (Turkish)
çerge
Small hut or a makeshift tent in an orchard. (R) (ZAN) (Turkish)
çevirme
Small enclosed garden. (KAM) (TRM) (Turkish)
çevlik
Synonym of çevirme; small walled garden or field. (ATI) (MER) (TRM) (Turkish)
çevlük
Kitchen garden in front of a house. (ZAN) (Turkish)
çevre duvarı
Wall enclosing a garden or a field. (ARS) (Turkish)
çiçek bahçesi
Flower garden. (TRM) (R) (NA) (TRM) (Turkish)
çiçek tarhı
Parterre, flowerbed. (R) (NA) (TRM) (Turkish)
çiçekçilik
Floriculture, florist. (R) (TDK) (MED) (ARK) (Turkish)
çiçekdanlık
Floriculture, florist. (R) (TDK) (MED) (ARK) (Turkish)
çiçekdanlık
Synonym of çiçeklik; vase, flower vase, flower stand, flower garden, flowerbed, flower house; conservatory, receptacle. (R) (OSM) (Turkish)
çit
Hedge; fence of hurdles, fence. (R) (TDK) (OSM) (TSD) (ATI) (ARS) (DLT) (TRM) (TEM) (KUB) (Turkish)
çitenlik
Garden, courtyard, kitchen garden. (TRM) (Turkish)
çiti
Synonym of çit; hedge; fence of hurdles, fence (R), trellis. (ARS) (Turkish)
çocuk bahçesi
Children’s park. (R) (HAY) (MED) (TDK) (ARS) (EGT) (KUB) (Turkish)
çocuk parkı
Synonym of çocuk bahçesi; children’s park. (R) (MED) (Turkish)

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D

dālān
Courtyard, large hall. (F.U.E.D) (M.A) (Urdu)
dālān
Hall, vestibule; covered way; corridor. (STG) (Persian)
dār
Beam; roof of a house; tree (Pahlavi); dār-i razān vine trellis; house, dwelling; seat; country, district; dār ‘l imārat royal residence, capital; dār‘l saltanah royal residence. (STG) (Persian)
dārafzīn
Anything upon which one leans; raised bench or sofa; screen, lattice. (STG) (Persian)
dārbast
Vine trellis. (STG) (Persian)
dārkhāl
Ungrafted tree; branch; sapling. (STG) (Persian)
dās
Sickle. (STG) (Persian)
dīvānkhāna
Tribunal, office; audience hall. (STG) (Persian)
dachlil
Scarecrow. (Hebrew)
dakka
Bench; counter for sitting. (STG) (Persian)
darbār
House, dwelling; court, area; court or levee of a prince; audience chamber. (STG) (Persian)
dargāh
King’s court; port, portal, gate, door; lower threshold; court before a palace or great house; large bench or place for reclining; mosque. (STG) (Persian)
darsār
Curtain hung before a door, an antechamber, an outer wall. (STG) (Persian)
darwāza
Entrance door or gate. (F.U.E.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
daryācha
Lake, pool. (STG) (Persian)
dasht
Desert, plain without water; burial ground. (STG) (Persian)
dastgird
Pahlavi dastgirt. (Persian)
dawlatkhānah
Palace; dawlatkhāna-i khās the king’s palace. (STG) (Persian)
dawlatkhānah
Mansion, palace, house. (F.U.E.D.) (S.N) (Urdu)
deshen
Chemical fertilizer, ash. (Hebrew)
dikim
Planting. (TDK) (ATI) (TRM) (Turkish)
dikme
Seedling, young plant (R); to plant, young plant. (TDK) (Turkish)
dikmek
Plant, transplant, implant. (R) (HAY) (TDK) (MED) (ARS) (LEH) (YAK) (KAM) (Turkish)
dikmelik
Nursery. (KAM) (TDK) (Turkish)
dilul
Thinning out some seedlings to improve the growth of the remaining ones. (Hebrew)
dirakht
Tree. (F.U.E.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
dirakht
Tree, plant, bush, shrub; beam; column. (STG) (Persian)
dirakhtistān
Planted with trees. (STG) (Persian)
dirakhtnāk
Full of trees, woody. (STG) (Persian)
dishun
Fertilizing by various means. (Hebrew)
divār
Wall that encloses a formal bāgh. (F.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
dizh
Gallery, balcony; fortress. (STG) (Persian)
dolap
Waterwheel. (R) (KAM) (KAR) (Turkish)
dukkān
Shop; workshop. (STG) (Persian)

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E

einav
Grape. (Hebrew)
enâristân
Pomegranate garden. (MÜN) (Turkish)
et
Plowshare; shovel. (Hebrew)
etz
Tree, wood. (Hebrew)

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F

faghistān
Idol temple; haram of a prince. (STG) (Persian)
falach
Peasant, farmer. (Hebrew)
favvāra
Jet d’eau, fountain, spring. (STG) (Persian)
ferâdîs-i cennet
Synonym of ferâdîs: plural of firdevs; garden of paradise, heaven. (R) (FED) (Turkish)
fidan çukurı
Sapling pit. (MEN) (Turkish)
fidan dikilen yer
Sapling, young tree, plant bed. (TSD) (Turkish)
fidanlık
Nursery. (R) (TDK) (KAM) (MED) (VLD) (Turkish)
fide
Seedling. (R) (TDK-2) (TYS) (KAM) (LEH) (MED) (TRK) (Turkish)
fidân
Sapling, young tree, plant, bush. (R) (NA) (ARK) (MEN) (TDK) (TYS) (HAY) (MED) (LEH) (KAM) (Turkish)
firdaws
Garden, vineyard, paradise; fertile valley. (STG) (Persian)
firdevs (pl. ferâdîs)
The garden of paradise, heaven (R); paradise, heaven, garden (OSM) (RIZ) (HAY); valley where every kind of plant is grown, vineyard, garden, highest heaven (MED) (FED) (CUD); heaven, garden (RTK); vegetable garden, garden (NAC); garden, paradise (Koran 18 Kehf 107, 23 Mü‘mimûn 11). (SKA) (Turkish)

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G

gababa
Dry pieces of straw remaining after collecting cut wheat. (Hebrew)
gadish
Pile of cut wheat. (Hebrew)
gadud
Small ridge or mound raised by the plow after opening the furrow. (Hebrew)
gan
A place to raise various trees, especially fruit trees. (Hebrew)
gan yarak
Vegetable garden. (Hebrew)
gan-eden
Garden of Eden. (Hebrew)
gana
A smaller version of the above, a vineyard or orchard. (Hebrew)
ganan
Craftsman who creates gardens; gardener. (Hebrew)
ganan
Gardener, expert in the care of trees and plants. (Hebrew)
ganit
Smaller version of the above, adjacent to a house. (Hebrew)
garmkhāna
Hothouse; subterranean dwelling for warmth; greenhouse. (STG) (Persian)
gars
Planting. (R) (NA); planting, plant (OSM); planting tree (KAM) (Turkish)
gars-ı escâr
Planting tree. (OSM) (Turkish)
gawdāl
Low-lying ground. (STG) (Persian)
gaytân
Garden. (EVL) (Turkish)
gelif
Watchman’s hut in vineyards or gardens. (TRM) (Turkish)
gever
Small lateral channel for irrigation. (R) (TRM) (Turkish)
gevermek
To let in, to insert (water). (R) (TRM) (Turkish)
ghulām gardish
Room between two others in which it opens; loggia and gate of a building; wall between the women’s quarters and the audience hall. (MUN) (Persian)
ghurfa
Parlor, upper apartment, room for taking meals; paradise, the seventh heaven. (STG) (Persian)
gidul
Growth; care and fostering of animals, children, and plants and meeting their developmental needs. (Hebrew)
gidum
Sever, chop. (Hebrew)
gizum
Cutting or pruning of dry or extraneous branches to give a plant or vine the desired form to augment its growth. (Hebrew)
goruk
Garden, vineyard. (VLD) (Turkish)
gul
Rose; flower. (STG) (Persian)
gul pīrāy
Gardener, horticulturist. (STG) (Persian)
guldasta
A handful of roses; minaret. (STG) (Persian)
gulgasht
Pleasant place for walking or recreation, especially blooming with roses and other flowers; evening walk. (STG) (Persian)
gulistān
Rose garden; flower garden; celebrated Persian book in prose and verse, by Shaykh Sa‛di (1210–1291/92). (STG) (Persian)
gulistū
Flower garden. (STG) (Persian)
gulnāk
Rose garden; flowerbed. (STG) (Persian)
gulshan
Rose or flower garden; bed of roses or flowers; delightful spot; pleasure palace; gulshan-i quds the highest heaven; gulshan āray gardener, horticulturist; gulshan sarāy garden palace. (STG) (Persian)
gulshan farūz
Gardener (spec. who plants roses). (STG) (Persian)
gulshan tarāz
Gardener, horticulturist. (STG)
gulzār
Rose garden; flourishing and well populated town; blooming, flourishing. (STG) (Persian)
gunbad
Arch, vault, cupola, dome, tower. (STG) (Persian)
gübre
Fertilizer, dung, manure, droppings (R) (NA); fertilizer, dung, manure, droppings, chemical or natural fertilizer. (TDK) (Turkish)
gül bahçesi
Rose garden. (R) (NA) (TSD) (TRM) (Turkish)
gül-bağ
Rose garden. (R) (OSM) (KUB) (Turkish)
gülbün
Rosebush. (R) (OSM) (HAY) (OTS) (Turkish)
gülistan
Rose garden (R) (NA) (OSM); synonym of çiçeklik, gülşen. (MEN) (KAM) (ARS) (KUB) (Turkish)
güllük
Rose garden, bed of roses, place full of roses. (R) (TDK) (BAY) (HAY) (TRM) (ARK) (KUB) (Turkish)
gülşen ü gülzâr
Rose garden. (R) (OSM) (Turkish)
g'mila
Ripening of fruit. (Hebrew)
g'mina
Pruning of trees. (Hebrew)

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H

hāshīya
Margin, border; flowerbed, parterre; hāshīya-yi bāgh bandī = hāshīya bandī to create flowerbeds in a garden. (STG) (Persian)
hadīqa (pl. hadāyiq)
Garden. (STG) (Persian)
hadiqa
Enclosure planted with fruit and palm trees but without vineyards. (Arabic)
hadâik-i Hassa
Imperial gardens (R) (KUB) (NA); imperial gardens outside of the courts. (TLG) (MED) (Turkish)
hadîka (pl. hadâik, hadâyık)
Garden, park, orchard (R) (OSM) (KAM); garden full of trees, garden with water (MÜK) (CUD); garden with trees, synonym of ravza, firdevs, bağ bostan (LEH); garden, park, orchard enclosed with a wall (YTL); garden full of trees enclosed with a wall, garden with water (NAC); a garden full of trees and water (KUB); garden full of trees. (RTK) (Turkish)
hadîka-i ferahfeza
Spacious, open garden. (OSM) (Turkish)
hadîka-i hâssa
Imperial gardens. (R) (KAM) (Turkish)
hadîkat
Garden and orchard; if it is not enclosed by a wall it cannot be called hadîka. (AHT) (Turkish)
hafracha
Bringing about budding or flowering; yielding. (Hebrew)
Hag Ha'asif (succot)
Harvest festival; tabernacles. (Hebrew)
Hag Ha'bicorim
Festival of First Fruits; Pentecost. (Hebrew)
hammām
Hot bath; Turkish bath. (STG) (Persian)
haram
Forbidden; haram khāna = haram sarā women’s apartments (STG) (Persian)
haram
Ladies section or apartment. (F.U.E.D) (Urdu)
harım
Vegetable and fruit garden, fence for a field or a garden (TDK); fence for a field or a garden (YÖR); garden or orchard or vegetable garden, fig garden, field accessible to water, valuable field near the village or town, garden fence (TRM); garden fence. (YÖR) (ZAN) (Turkish)
harkava
Propagation. (Hebrew)
hars
Tilling, sowing, plowing. (STG) (Persian)
hasbahçe bostancıları
Members of the imperial guard (R); gardener-guards of the imperial gardens. (OTL) (TDS) (Turkish)
hasbahçe ocağı
Janissary corps of the sultan’s private gardens. (TDS) (Turkish)
hasbahçe
Private garden of the sultan (R) (NA) (ARS) (OTL) (TLG) (MED) (SAN); imperial gardens and orchards in a court. (TEM) (TDS) (Turkish)
hashka'a
Irrigation. (Hebrew)
hashrasha
Rooting a plant. (Hebrew)
hasht bihisht
The eight paradises. (STG) (Persian)
havchala
Fruit that is almost ripe; accelerating the maturation of fruit by artificial means. (Hebrew)
hawm
Name of a tree resembling the tamarisk; name of a descendant of Faridum, a sacrifice offered to the fire, a burnt-offering. (STG) (Persian)
haw
Large reservoir of water, basin of a fountain, pond, tank, vat, cistern; hawz̤-i kaws̱ar reservoir of nectar in paradise; hawz̤cha = hawz̤ak small reservoir, cistern; hawz̤khāna building containing basins of water. (STG) (Persian)
haw-i jūshān
hawż reservoir of water + jūshān boiling. (STG) (Persian)
hayāt
Walls, inner court, yard, vestibule. (STG) (Persian)
hisār
Besieging; encompassing; fortified town, fort, castle; fence, enclosure; hisār-i barīn the highest heaven; hisār-i pīrūza sky. (STG) (Persian)
hisār
Fortification wall that encloses a qasr. (F.D) (J.N) (Urdu)
hovara
Letting a field lay fallow. (Hebrew)
hujra
Chamber. (STG) (Persian)
hydroponika
Hydroponics; using water containing all essential salts instead of soil as a growth medium. (Hebrew)
hâ‘ir, hayr (pl. huran, hiran)
Place enclosed for cattle raising, with a pocket of water; a large precinct within a royal garden, such as a zoological garden. In al-Andalus, a pavilion in a garden within the precincts of a large palace. (Arabic)
hâ’it
Vegetable or pleasure garden enclosed within solid walls. (Arabic)
hadīqa
Orchard; palm plantation; enclosed garden. (STG) (Persian)

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I

igum
Impounding of water to create a lake. (Hebrew)
ikar
Farmer. (Hebrew)
ilan
Tree. (Hebrew)
İrem
The mystical gardens said to have been devised by Shaddad bin Ad in emulation of the garden of Paradise (R) (NA); as bağ-ı İrem. (OSS) (Turkish)
ivān
In a garden, a chamber/pavilion where important person sits and meets with the audience. It is usually located at a key focal point on the site affording a maximum view from the sitting area. These pavilions were most often located at the intersection of khyabans, at the termination of a vista or on one or either side of a pond hauz. (F.D P.N) (Urdu)
ivan chihl sutun
Forty-pillared hall. During the Shah Jahan period, ivan chihl sutun were constructed and were known as Daulat Khāna Khās-o Am. These forty-pillared halls, therefore exist at Lahore, Shahjahanabad, and Agra. (S.N.) (Urdu)
i‛imārat
Cultivating, rendering habitable a building, edifice, structure; palace; sacred fabric. (STG) (Persian)
i‛imarat-i sardar
‛imarat building + sardar lintel of a door. (STG) (Persian)
idit
Best soil. (Hebrew)
idur
Hoeing, tilling. (Hebrew)
ispargham
Name of an odoriferous herb; any green herb; verdure; any fragrant herb. (STG) (Persian)
isparlūs
Palace. (STG) (Persian)
issuv
Weeding by hand. (Hebrew)
istabl
Stable (Arabic, from Greek στάβλιον). (STG) (Persian)
istakhr
Lake, pool, ditch; ancient Persepolis. (STG) (Persian)
izuk
Tilling the soil in preparation for planting. (Hebrew)

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J

jālīz
Herbage, flowers and fruits. (STG) (Persian)
jān-i zamīn
Herbage, flowers, and fruits. (STG)
jūy
Running stream, rivulet; canal or gutter cut for the purpose of irrigation. (STG) (Persian)
jūybār
Great river formed by the confluence of many smaller streams; riverbank; place abounding in streams. (STG) (Persian)
ja‛far
Little stream; river; name of an imām. (STG) (Persian)
jadval
Rivulet; ruled line, marginal line; column, table of contents (of a book); dried up river, brook. (STG) (Persian)
jadvalbandī
To lay down the grid of irrigation channels. (Persian)
jaft
Trellis; roof of a house. (STG) (Persian)
jahān
The world, universe. (STG) (Persian)
jahān ārāy
Adorning the world. (STG) (Persian)
jahān namā
jahān world + namā showing. (Persian)
jangal
(Sanskrit janagala) wood, forest, thicket; country overgrown with wood, reeds, or long grass; jungle. (STG) (Persian)
janna (pl. jnân)
Place planted with fruit and palm trees. In classical Arabic, this garden also contains vineyards. In Marrakech and Fez, orchard or kitchen garden outside the city walls or in the Medina. (Arabic)
janna (pl. jinan, jannat)
In the Quran, shady and densely planted paradises promised to believers. (Arabic)
jannat
Garden, set with trees; grove of palm trees; paradise; heaven. (STG) (Persian)
jannat
Paradise, heaven (F.U.E.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
jar
Crack, cleft, fissure, particularly in the ground; ditch, trench, cracked ground. (STG) (Persian)
jard
Royal throne. (STG) (Persian)
jawla gāh
A field of jawla, a kind of grass. (STG) (Persian)
jawla zār
Prairie. (Persian)
jawsa
Balcony; kiosk; villa. (STG) (Persian)
jawsaq
Lofty building, palace; villa, kiosk. (STG) (Persian)
jharoka
Bay window where an emperor would sit to present himself to his audience. It is generally located above the floor level where the emperor used to sit but in case of residential buildings these are designed at the first floor level to overlook the view of the street and landscape beyond. The jharoka occupied a central position both in the diwan-e-khas-o-aam (hall of lords and the commons). These jharoka were decorated with floral patterns either painted on plaster or made in pietra dura work. It generally protruded from the main structure, so a person sitting in a jharoka was visible from three different sides. The emperor's seat in Hall of Public and Private audience were usually written as Jharoka-e Darshan. (F.U.E.D) (B.S) (Urdu)
jirz
Wall. (Persian)
jisr
Bridge. (STG) (Persian)
joy
Canal, stream of water. (J.N) (Urdu)
julaw-khānā
Entrance forecourt, whether for a palace, tomb, or pleasure garden; antechamber, porch (F.D S.N) (Urdu)
julaw-khān
Façade of a house. (STG) (Persian)

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K

kājistān
Land full of pine trees; kāj wild pine tree + istān place. (STG) (Persian)
kāla
Ground prepared for sowing. (STG) (Persian)
kākh
Palace, villa, summer dwelling; apartment at the top of the house open to front; upper story; tower, gallery, balcony, battlements, or any similar erection for the benefit of air or a prospect. (STG) (Persian)
kārīz
Subterranean canal; ditch dug around a field to convey water. (STG) (Persian)
kāza
House; hut erected in the corner of a field or melon ground; bedchamber built of wood and supported by columns; hunter’s hiding place; canopy; shady place. (STG) (Persian)
kūcha bāgh
Street leading to gardens; kūcha narrow street; lane, slum, row, passage; street, square, marketplace. (Persian)
kūshk
Palace, villa; castle, citadel. (STG) (Persian)
kabūtar khāna
Pigeon house. (STG) (Persian)
kadim
A hot eastern wind that scorches the wheat (Gen. 41:6). (Hebrew)
kafnit
Wild palm; wild dates. (Hebrew)
kakma aşı
Grafting, bud (to be placed into the stock). (TDK-2) (Turkish)
kan
Tree; place full of trees. (STG) (Persian)
kana
Understock; plant; shoot. (Hebrew)
kapama bahçe
Garden planted with only one kind of tree. (TRM) (Turkish)
kar
Meadow; grassland. (Hebrew)
kardom
Iron tool, a kind of pickaxe for digging. (Hebrew)
karık
Furrow. (R) (TDK) (TRM) (KUB) (TEM) (Turkish)
karka betula
Name for land that has never been worked. (Hebrew)
karmel
Garden; fruitful field; Mount Carmel. (Hebrew)
kart
Piece of tilled ground; small raised part of ground dividing the plots in a garden and made to hold irrigation water (STG); piece of cultivated land, each portion of a field or garden. (MUN) (Persian)
karta
Piece of tilled ground. (STG) (Persian)
karyās
Privy on the roof of a house having communication with a subterranean passage. (STG) (Persian)
katif
Harvest of fruit from a tree. (Hebrew)
kav
Dry weight used during the period of the Mishna and the Talmud, approximately 2.2 liters. (Hebrew)
kav
Taut thread used for measuring (Ezek. 2:47). (Hebrew)
kava
Collected water in a ritual bath. (Hebrew)
kaveret
Beehive. (Hebrew)
kavot
Vessel used for pickling fruit (from Greek). (Hebrew)
kavran
Beekeeper. (Hebrew)
kerem
Vineyard (Hebrew)
kerti
Water notch in gardens or fields. (TRM) (Turkish)
kfar
Village, hamlet; countryside. (Hebrew)
kfari
Rural; rustic. (Hebrew)
khānī
Fountain, pure water. (STG) (Persian)
khāna
House, dwelling, habitation; tent, pavilion; āyina khāna house or apartment adorned with mirrors. (STG) (Persian)
khāna
House, dwelling. (F.U.E.D) (J.N) (Urdu)
khāna/paein bāgh
Literally, house garden. These were built in large havelis and so were for the exclusive use of ladies. This term was used for the first time in the palace garden of Shahjahanabad where such courtyard gardens were rebuilt for the exclusive use of harem. (C.C) (S.N) (Urdu)
khīsh
Coarse linen cloth. (STG) (Persian)
khīshkhāna
A kind of tent constructed with reeds or linen cloth; tent with tatties to keep out the heat. (STG) (Persian)
khiyābān
Parterre, flowerbed; avenue. (STG) (Persian)
khīyābān bandī
Laying out avenues. (Ain) (Urdu)
khīyābān bandī
Designing the avenues in a garden or city. (STG) (Persian)
khalvat khāna
Private chamber, bedroom. (F.U.E.D) (B.N) (Urdu)
khalvat khāna
Women’s apartment; any other private apartment. (STG) (Persian)
khalvat sarā
Women’s apartment; place for private prayer. (STG) (Persian)
kharand
Low garden wall; parapet of a gallery. (STG) (Persian)
kharbusta
Prominent part of a roof; eaves. (STG) (Persian)
khargāh
Tent, pavilion, tabernacle; wide and spacious residence; cottage or moveable Turkoman hut or tent, formed by flexible poles, and covered with felt-cloth; sky. (STG) (Persian)
kharpushta
Anything elevated in the center and sloping downward at each end; tent; the ninth heaven. (STG) (Persian)
khavarnaq
Palace built by Nu’mān bin Munzir for king Bahram in Babylonia and alluded to often to imply a magnificent edifice. (STG) (Persian)
khayma
Tent, tabernacle, circular pavilion; khayma-yi arzaq the sky; khayma gāh a camp. (STG) (Persian)
Khizr
Prophet who discovered and drank of the water of life and became immortal. He figures in Oriental tradition as a vizir of Iskandar, and also as Elias and St. George, on the supposition that the same soul animated them by transmigration. Khizr has spring in his wake, said because the ground on which he places his foot is supposed to be immediately covered with green. (STG) (Persian)
khudā
God, master, owner. (STG) (Persian)
Khura, khurra, khura band
Divine illumination; a district of the Persian empire. (STG) (Persian)
khushūdan
To prune a tree. (STG) (Persian)
khvab gah
Sleeping chamber, a sleeping apartment. (F.U.E.D) (Urdu)
khyabān
Terraces (tabqas) were divided into chahārbāghs formed by two khyabāns (avenues) intersecting at right angles. These avenues were paved with brick on edge in a variety of geometrical motifs. These motifs were repeated to add to the harmony and balance of the garden design. (F.D) (M.G) (Urdu)
kida
Perfume mentioned in the Bible to prepare the anointing oil (Exod. 30:23–24). (Hebrew)
kikar
Square; plaza; piazza. (Hebrew)
kikar
Plain, valley. (Hebrew)
kilshon
Agricultural tool with three tines. (Hebrew)
kış bahçesi
Winter garden. (R) (ARS) (TRM) (Turkish)
kishtzār
Field sown and beginning to look green. (STG) (Persian)
kisuakh
Cut off; mown. (Hebrew)
kiton
Pump or installation for pumping water (from Greek). (Hebrew)
kiyarī
Flowerbed. (F.U.E.D) (B.K) (Urdu)
kmira
Covering fruit with earth to ripen them. (Hebrew)
knima
Vermin; insect; pest. (Hebrew)
korem
Vineyard owner/grower. (Hebrew)
kormut
Grapevine cultivation. (Hebrew)
kotzer
Farmer cutting ripe wheat. (Hebrew)
kotzetz
Cuts, clips. (Hebrew)
köşk
Villa, summer house; pavilion (R); kiosk. (NA) (Turkish)
ktaf
Sap from a perfume tree. (Hebrew)
ktoret
Burning of incense to create a pleasant fragrance (Deut. 10:33). (Hebrew)
kulāhfarangī
Pavilion. (STG) (Persian)

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L

lūla
Canal, tube, siphon. (STG) (Persian)
lala zār
Tulip garden. The Kashmir valley was described as a lalazârduring spring because of its abundant tulips. (F.D) (Ba-Na) (Urdu)
lale
Tulip. (R) (NA) (TDK-2) (MED) (OSM) (HAY) (LEH) (BAY) (Turkish)
lalelik
Tulip bed, vase for tulips. (TEM) (Turkish)
less
Loess (soil). (Hebrew)
liviev
To bloom; blossom; sprout. (Hebrew)
lulav
Twig, palm branch; one of the biblical four species of plants used on the Feast of Tabernacles. (Hebrew)
lâlezar
Tulip garden, tulip bed. (R) (NA) (TDK) (MED) (OSM) (TEM) (FED) (Turkish)

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M

mādī
Streams in Isfahan. (Persian)
maavek
Blower for disinfection power. (Hebrew)
machresha
Plow. (Hebrew)
machtab
Modern name for a hand sickle. (Hebrew)
madrega
Agricultural terrace. (Hebrew)
magal
Sickle; tool with a serrated blade used to cut herbs and corn. (Hebrew)
magal yad
Pruning sickle, see machtab. (Hebrew)
magov
Rake; agricultural implement with prongs used to rake corn. (Hebrew)
magrefa
Rake, for collecting scattered objects to level the soil. (Hebrew)
magrofit
Portion of the plow that turns up the soil. (Hebrew)
mahtābī
Lit by the moon; balcony or terrace (for enjoying the moonlight). (STG) (Persian)
makosh
Modern name for a hoe, one side of the head of which is pointed and the other straight, used to dig stony soils. In antiquity, a pickaxe used to uproot weeds. (Hebrew)
malgez
Fork; trident. (Hebrew)
mangul
Knee-shaped tube. (Persian)
manzil (pl. manazil) gāh
Noun of place and time from the root n-z-l, which expresses the idea of halting, a temporary stay, a stage in a journey. In the terminology of itineraries given by Arab authors, manzil corresponds to the mansio of Latin texts: a halting or resting place. In Mughal architecture, manazil gahis the type of garden where emperors often stopped for a short period of time during their journey. The Wah Gardens provide an example. Abode. (F.D) (A.N) (Urdu)
margh
Name of a grass of which animals are exceedingly fond; garden, particularly one abounding in plants. (STG) (Persian)
marghzār
Pasture; meadow. It is derived from margh, a kind of grass. (F.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
marghzār
Place abounding with margh; verdant lawn, mead, meadow. (STG) (Persian)
masdeda
Iron frame with numerous teeth on the bottom side used after plowing to level the ground and break up clumps of soil. (Hebrew)
masor
Saw. (Hebrew)
mawistān
Vineyard. (Persian)
maydān
Open field without buildings, an extensive plain; race ground or any place for exercises or walking; arena, parade ground; battlefield; maydān gāh a public square; maydān-i chawgān polo ground; maydān-i asb davānī horse riding ground. (Persian)
mazlef
Gardener’s bucket with perforated funnel for irrigation. (Hebrew)
mazmera
Modern name for a two-part pruning shears. In antiquity, a small non-serrated sickle. (Hebrew)
ma'ader
Hoe. (Hebrew)
mesire
Synonym of mesiregah; promenade, place of excursion. (R) (NA) (Turkish)
mey tehom
Groundwater. (Hebrew)
meyve bahçesi
Orchard, fruit garden. (NA) (TRM) (Turkish)
migzazalim
Sheep-wool shears. (Hebrew)
mimār
Architect, builder. (F.U.E.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
ming
Water pipe, conduit. (STG) (Persian)
morag
Threshing implement. (Hebrew)
munazzah, muntanazaha
Open garden space without any enclosure with large planted avenues, generally close to a natural waterway. In classical Arabic, promenades and pleasurable places for gatherings. (Arabic)
munya
Enclosed agricultural domain in al-Andalus belonging to a ruler or high-ranking court dignitary used for aesthetic, economic, and even experimental cultivation. In al-Andalus, called almunya after the fourteenth century. (Arabic)

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N

nārinjistān
Orangery; conservatory. (STG) (Persian)
nahr
Stream, canal, watercourse. It is one of the main features particularly in a princely Mughal garden. (F.U.E.D) (Tadhkira Qasâ’id) (Urdu)
nahr
Stream, river. (STG) (Persian)
nakhchīr
Hunting; chase; prey, game, wild beast; place of hunters. (STG) (Persian)
nakhjīrgāh
Chase, hunting ground. (STG) (Persian)
nakhlband
Maker of artificial flowers; gardener; one who moulds figures of trees or fruits in wax. (STG) (Persian)
nakhlistān
Palm plantation. (STG) (Persian)
namakdān
Salt cellar. (STG) (Persian)
naqāra khāna
Porch where the royal drum kettles are beaten at stated intervals. (STG) (Persian)
nard
One of the perfumes mentioned in the Bible (Nardostachys jatamansi). (Hebrew)
nasheman
Pavilion, residence, resting place. (F.D) (B.S) (Urdu)
nazargah
Place for sightseeing. (Turkish)
nazır
Person who watches (R); gardener, guard of garden and vineyard. (VLD) (Turkish)
nebatat bahçesi
Botanical garden. (R) (HAY) (MED) (KUB) (Turkish)
neger
Runoff (water). (Hebrew)
neshila, neshira
Shedding, sloughing. (Hebrew)
nesteren-zar
Rose garden. (KUB) (Turkish)
netia'a
Planting. (Hebrew)
netzer
Stem, shoot. (Hebrew)
neve-midbar
Oasis. (Hebrew)
nevet
Sprout. (Hebrew)
nevila
Withering, wilting. (Hebrew)
nevâîr
Waterwheels for irrigation. (FED) (Turkish)
nevâtîr
Guards of a vegetable garden. (FED) (OSM) (Turkish)
nikush
Weeding with a tool. (Hebrew)
nir
Plowed field. (Hebrew)
nitzan
Bud. (Hebrew)
noy
Beauty. (Hebrew)
nâtır (natr)
Synonym of natur; watchman of a garden or vineyard (R) (FED); vineyard guard, gardener. (HAY) (MÜN) (Turkish)
nâûra
Synonym of naure; waterwheel, machine for raising water for irrigation. (R) (RTK) (MÜK) (CUD) (NAC) (Turkish)

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O

ol
Yoke. (Hebrew)
omer
Small sheaf. (Hebrew)
ona
Season. (Hebrew)

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P

pād
Guardian; throne; power; great. (STG) (Persian)
pādarbān
Gatehouse. (Persian)
pādikāna
High roof; window. (STG) (Persian)
pādshāh
Emperor, sovereign, monarch, king. (STG) (Persian)
pālīz
Kitchen garden; seed field; melon ground. (STG) (Persian)
pālīzbān
Gardener. (STG) (Persian)
pālakāna
High roof, window. (STG) (Persian)
pālkāna
High roof, window. (STG) (Persian)
pāshuya
Water channel around a basin. (MUN) (Persian)
pāyāb
Well, any shallow stone reservoir of water easy of access; bottom of a pond or a body of water. (STG) (Persian)
pīrāstan
To prune; to adorn, decorate, embellish (especially by cutting, clipping, or taking away); bustān pīrā bāgh pīrā gardener. (STG) (Persian)
pīshtāq
Palace gate. (Persian)
pal
Field with a raised border. (STG) (Persian)
parīz
Herb growing on the banks of rivers. (STG) (Persian)
parag
Poppy. (Hebrew)
parchīn
Briar hedge; thorn placed on a wall as a fence; shed; hovel constructed of sticks, leaves, etc. (STG) (Persian)
pardīs
Paradise (neologism from English). (Persian)
parda
Curtain; partition between two rooms; fence or wall dividing fields; parda sarā pavilion. (STG) (Persian)
pardes
Orchard. (Hebrew)
parkhaw-kardan
Pruning of trees. (STG) (Persian)
parpar
Butterfly. (Hebrew)
parvār
Summer house latticed on all sides to admit air; turret open on all sides; planks for roofing a house. (STG) (Persian)
pasāk
Garland of flowers. (STG) (Persian)
pasānidan
To irrigate. (STG) (Persian)
payvand
To graft. (STG) (Persian)
peqa'at
Bulb. (Hebrew)
perach
Flower. (Hebrew)
pered
Mule. (Hebrew)
peri
Fruit. (Hebrew)
pevand kāri
Grafting. (S.B) (Urdu)
pichkam
Court, audience hall; house whose sides are latticed; summer house. (STG) (Persian)
pitriyah
Mushroom. (Hebrew)
poreh
Fertile, productive. (Hebrew)
pore'ach
Flowering. (Hebrew)
pul
Bridge. (STG) (Persian)
pulvan
Raised path or balk round a field. (STG) (Persian)

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Q

qalamistān
Land in which qalamah, branches cut from plants to be replanted, are laid on the ground. (Persian)
qanāt
Subterranean canal. (STG) (Persian)
qasr
Castle, citadel, palace, villa, any imposing building or structure. (STG) (Persian)

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R

rāgh
Lower part of a mountain, mountain slope; pleasant verdant meadow; villa, summer house; bāgh va rāgh gardens and villas. (STG) (Persian)
rakbuvit
Organic plant material that has disintegrated into the soil. (Hebrew)
ravāq
A house resembling a tent being supported on one pillar; a curtain stretched like a canopy before a tent or the door of a house; portico; porch; gallery in front of a house; a lofty building resting on columns. (STG) (Persian)
ravz, ravza (pl. riyâz)
Garden, meadow, oasis in a desert (R) (SÜL) (FED); garden (YED) garden, meadow (YUS); garden, meadow, with water and flowers, heaven (SUK); garden, the place of prophet Muhammed’s tomb (Ravza-i Mutahhara) (MEV) (OSM) (MÜK) (CUD) (LEH) (RTK) (NAC); garden, meadow, with water and lawn, heaven. (KUB) (Turkish)
rawda, rawd
Park, cemetery. (Arabic)
rawza
Kitchen or flower garden. (STG) (Persian)
regev
Clod of soil. (Hebrew)
revia'a
Rainy season (from Arabic). (Hebrew)
ridud
Flattening and pressing down soil. (Hebrew)
riyâd
Garden enclosed within the high walls of a residence. In Marrakech and Fez there are three main types according to the organization of the enclosure, the location of the residential building and the form of the interior garden. In Morocco, the grass-covered enclosure of a Muslim cemetery, evocative of paradise. (Arabic)
rochev
Branch of a superior fruit tree used in propagation. (Hebrew)
roglit
Grapevine that trails along the ground. (Hebrew)

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S

Sābāt
Covered passage connecting two houses. (STG) (Persian)
sāyabān
Canopy, parasol; a shade formed by foliage or by any other projection; tent, pavilion. (STG) (Persian)
sabza maydān
The sky. (STG) (Persian)
sabzazār
Verdant meadow. (Persian)
sabzjāy
Green place. (Persian)
sadeh
Area of land intended for cultivation. (Hebrew)
sadeh beit shalchin
Field irrigated by artificial means. (Hebrew)
şadırvan
Fountain of water (with a jet in the middle); reservoir with faucets at the sides for ablution, usually attached to a mosque. (R) (NA) (ARS) (Turkish)
sadma
Field of wheat or a vineyard. (Hebrew)
safsal
Bench. (Hebrew)
sakkū
Sofa, bench, garden seat. (STG) (Persian)
sal
Basket. (Hebrew)
sarā
Palace, mansion. (STG) (Persian)
sarā parda
Curtain, especially at the door of a royal palace or pavilion; wall of canvas surrounding a cluster of tents; royal court; women enclosed in the seraglio; sarā parda gushūdan to open the royal tent; sarā parda-yi jahān the sky. (STG) (Persian)
sarābūstān
Garden adjoining a house. (STG) (Persian)
sarāy
House, palace, grand edifice, king’s court, seraglio; sarāy-i baqā mansion of eternity, the other world; sarāy-i surūr tavern, paradise. (STG) (Persian)
sarīr
Throne. (STG) (Persian)
sardar
Lintel of a door. (STG) (Persian)
sarv
Cypress tree; fir tree. (STG) (Persian)
sarvistān
A place abounding with cypresses. (STG) (Persian)
sebze bahçesi
Vegetable garden (NA); truck garden. (TRM) (Turkish)
sebzelik
Vegetable garden. (MED) (ARK) (TRM) (ARK) (KUB) (Turkish)
sebzezar
Kitchen garden, green field. (R) (Turkish)
sela
Rock. (Hebrew)
semadar
Nascent fruit. (Hebrew)
setli bahçe
Hanging gardens, terraced gardens. (NA) (ARS) (TRM) (Turkish)
seyremek
To plant seedlings in the garden. (TRM) (Turkish)
shādurvān
Large veil, curtain, or tapestry suspended before the gate of a royal palace; projecting roof; cornice; eaves; a kind of variously ornamented and moveable Turkoman house. (STG) (Persian)
Shāh
King, sovereign, emperor, monarch, prince. (STG) (Persian)
shāhjūy
Grand channel. (Persian)
shāhnishīn
Seat of the king, i.e. a gallery or balcony projecting from the palace, where the king shows himself to his people; a balcony gallery, portico, or similar projection. (STG) (Persian)
shākhsār
Full of branches, abounding in trees; the extremity of a branch. (Persian)
shāmiāna
Tent; canopy. Tents remained an important element in Mughal lives. Tents were pitched in gardens to provide shelter in good weather and for the enjoyment of outdoor activities. Tents were also seen in the chihl sutuns above the royal seat on important occasions. These shāmianās provided shelter for the nobility as well as decorative accent. (F.D) (Urdu)
shabistān
Bed; bedchamber. (STG) (Persian)
shatil
Sapling. (Hebrew)
shibolet
Elongated flowering head of a plant such as wheat or barley. (Hebrew)
shided
Crumbled the top layer of soil; loosened with a harrow. (Hebrew)
shoresh
Root. (Hebrew)
shuturgalū
Underground water tubes shaped like the neck of a camel. (Persian)
sid
Lime. (Hebrew)
sikul
Clearing, removal of stones from the field. (Hebrew)
sineç
Hedge; fence around the gardens and vineyard. (TRM) (Turkish)
siper çiti
Protection hedge, fence. (TRM) (Turkish)
soba
Hothouse. (R) (NA) (HAY) (Turkish)
soch
Large branch. (Hebrew)
sofa
Raised flower bed (R) (MED) (ARS); sofa to sit on in gardens. (İNŞ) (Turkish)
soreg
Grate, barrier. (Hebrew)
su dolabı
Noria, waterwheel (R); wheel for raising water. (ARS) (TRM) (TEM) (Turkish)
suf
Reed, a plant that rows along streams and swamps (typha). (Hebrew)
suffa
Sofa, bench; dais, estrade, or raised floor; covered place for reclining in front of the the doors of houses or mosques. (STG) (Persian)
sukkah
Tabernacle. (Hebrew)
Sukkoth
Feast of Tabernacles, when the crops are being harvested. (Hebrew)
sulam
Ladder. (Hebrew)
sutun āvand
Portico a veranda supported by a single column. (STG) (Persian)
syafa
Last and poorest crop. (Hebrew)

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T

tābdān
Window; skylight. (STG) (Persian)
tābkhāna
Hothouse; winter habitation; warm bath; summer quarters; greenhouse. (STG) (Persian)
tālāb
Pond, pool; reservoir of water. (F.U.E.D) (Urdu)
tālār
Bedchamber or saloon, built of wood and supported by four columns; throne. (STG) (Persian)
tāq-i bustān
Loggia. (Persian)
tāqcha
Shelf or niche. Tāqchas are generally constructed in places where lamps are placed, such as sāvan bhādon and baradaris. Both functional and decorative. They are designed to hold oil lamps or simply to add depth to an otherwise bare wall. One of the beautiful examples of taqchas may be seen in the baradaris on the bank of Ana Sagar lake at Ajmer. (T.L) (Urdu)
tāra
Cupola; circular wooden building. (STG) (Persian)
tārum
Circular wooden building with an arched roof; dome; roof; palisade to exclude people from a garden. (STG) (Persian)
tāv khāna
Hothouse, conservatory; bath; summer residence; summer quarters for soldiers. (STG) (Persian)
tāzh
Tent, pavilion of cotton or muslin. (STG) (Persian)
tanabī
Open-fronted summer room; parlor or dining room. (STG) (Persian)
tabqa
Story; floor; stage. (F.U.E.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
tafarrujgāh
Delightful place for recreation (as a garden, meadow, or theater). (STG) (Persian)
taielet
Promenade. (Hebrew)
tajar
Winter house. (STG) (Persian)
takhrīj
A kind of loggia. (MUN) (Persian)
takht
Seat where two or more persons could sit, relax, or chat; sitting platform. These could be in the interior or exterior of the house. The design of the takht depended upon the position/title of the user. Takht-e-taus (Peacock Throne) was the most elaborate among all indoor takhts of the Mughal period. Its background walls were decorated with pietra dura work using most precious stones. Wooden takhts were portable and could be placed anywhere in a garden; later, these takhts were built with different materials such as marble. (T.L) (Urdu)
takht
Royal throne, chair of state; seat, sofa; bed; any place raised above the ground for sleeping, sitting, or reclining; a capital; the royal residence. (STG) (Persian)
takhtgāh
Place of the throne; seat of the king. (MUN) (Persian)
takman
A small portion of a garden, small garden. (TRM) (Turkish)
takya
Place of repose; alcove; pillow; anything upon which one leans. (STG) (Persian)
tal
Dew. (Hebrew)
tamar
Tree of the palm family, the fruit of which has the same name (Song of Sol. 7:7–8). (Hebrew)
tanbūsha
Earthenware tube through which water passes. (Persian)
tarah
Layout. (B.K.) (Bayaz) (Urdu)
tarah ārāi
Designing, Layout planning. (Urdu)
tarak
Rake, harrow. (R) (TRM) (ARS) (LEH) (YTL) (Turkish)
taraklamak
To rake, to harrow. (R) (TDK) (HAY) (LEH) (Turkish)
tarh
Flowerbed; garden border (R) (NA); place set aside to plant flowers. (TDK) (MED) (ARK) (FED) (KUB) (Turkish)
tavīla
Stable. (STG) (Persian)
tekke
Dervish lodge. (R) (Turkish)
telem
Furrow. (Hebrew)
teneh
Wicker basket; fruit basket. (Hebrew)
teresh
Rock. (Hebrew)
teva
Nature. (Hebrew)
tevuah
General name for all cultivated foods. (Hebrew)
tia'a
Planting. (Hebrew)
tichuach
Loosening the soil by raking or plowing. (Hebrew)
tilul
Creating mounds of soil around the bases of trees. (Hebrew)
tin
Clay; silt; mud. (Hebrew)
tırmık
Rake, harrow. (R) (LEH) (Turkish)
tiuve
Improvement of the soil. (Hebrew)
topographia
Topography. (Hebrew)
tuff
Tuff, tufa. (Hebrew)
tundidan, tandidan
To put forth flowers, buds, or leaves (trees). (STG) (Persian)
turfanda
Early fruits or vegetables. (R) (NA) (TDK) (DGA) (HAY) (Turkish)
turfandalık
Garden or field for growing early fruits and vegetables. (R) (TDK) (TRM) (KUB) (TEM) (Turkish)
turi'ia
Hoe. (Hebrew)
turra
Coping of a wall. (STG) (Persian)
tuvāra
Thorns fixed on a wall; straw hut in which keepers of vineyard take shelter. (STG) (Persian)
türbe
Tomb, grave, mausoleum. (R) (Turkish)
tvuot choref
? (Hebrew)
tza'yid
Hunt. (Hebrew)
tzartzar
Cricket. (Hebrew)
tzel
Shade. (Hebrew)
tzemach
Plant. (Hebrew)
tzfarde'a
Frog. (Hebrew)
tzinor
Hose, pipe. (Hebrew)
tzipor
Bird. (Hebrew)
tziporen
One of the incense plants used at the Temple (eugenia caryophyllata). (Hebrew)
tzira'a
Hornet. (Hebrew)
tznon
Radish. (Hebrew)
tzome'ach
Vegetation. (Hebrew)
tzuh
Nectar. (Hebrew)
tzvi
Deer, gazelle. (Hebrew)

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U

urusī
Sliding window that opens vertically; also used for rooms that have this kind of window. (Persian)
utāq
Room, chamber, cabin. (STG) (Persian)

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V

vādīj
Trellis, vine-prop; vine-bud, the place where grapes are hung up; vādij bastan to tie the vine on a pergola. (STG) (Persian)

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Y

yūrt
Resting place, station, abode, mansion; encampment. (STG) (Persian)
yagev
Field. (Hebrew)
yalak
Basin prepared to plant vegetables or fruits. (MER) (Turkish)
yarak
Vegetable. (Hebrew)
yarkan
Greengrocer, vegetable grower/dealer. (Hebrew)
yarok
Green herb. (Hebrew)
yarok ad
Evergreen plants. (Hebrew)
yastık
Nursery bed (garden). (R) (ARS) (HAY) (MED) (KUB) (Turkish)
yatak
Nursery bed. (TDK) (Turkish)
ya'ar
Forest. (Hebrew)
ya'aran
Forester. (Hebrew)
ya'in
Wine. (Hebrew)
yegiva
Fieldwork; crop management. (Hebrew)
yekev
Wine cellar, wine press. (Hebrew)
yerakot Choref
Winter vegetable; winter crops. (Hebrew)
yerek
Green herbs; vegetation; foliage. (Hebrew)
yevol
Crop. (Hebrew)
yeynail, yeynan
Wine produre/salesman. (Hebrew)
yibol
Weeding. (Hebrew)
yogev
Farmer. (Hebrew)
yokev
Vineyard owner. (Hebrew)
yurd
Chamber, room, apartment. (STG) (Persian)

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Z

zevel, zaval
Dung or other animal excrement or decayed organic or mineral remains used as fertilizer; the name of the person who fertilizes a field. (Hebrew)
zibul
Fertilization. (Hebrew)
zimra
Best fruit; the pick of the crop. (Hebrew)
zvula
Digging tool. (Hebrew)
zvurit
Barren or poor quality soil. (Hebrew)

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