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Transliteration Conventions

Middle East Garden Traditions has been updated to follow the transliteration conventions of the ALA-LC romanization tables. Ottoman Turkish terms have been romanized according to the principle of conversion, detailed under “Rules of Application.” Proper names, including those of people, places, and gardens, use a simplified scheme. Please note that if the names of gardens or garden areas, even if using technical vocabulary (e.g., chahārbāgh, bāgh, dawlatkhānah, ṭavīlah, etc.), do not use diacritics.