(Seal of) Apameia and Antioch (sixth/seventh centuries)
DO Seals 5 no. 9.19.
The interpretation of this specimen is problematic. It may have been struck by an ofﬁcial who had authority over the two cities, Apameia (no doubt the ancient Pharnake and the Arab Qalat al-Madiq, in Syria) and Antioch. On the other hand, it could also have belonged to an ecclesiastical institution, in this case the church of Apameia, that wished to clarify its subordination to Antioch the Theoupolis and thus avoid being confused with the archbishopric Apameia of Bithynia, or the bishopric of the same name (also known as Kibotos) that was a suffragan of Antioch of Pisidia (see Laurent, Corpus 5.1:616, 637, and 402–3; DO Seals 3, sections 43 and 90).
- Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks and at the Fogg Museum of Art, vol. 3: West, Northwest, and Central Asia Minor and the Orient
- Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks and in the Fogg Museum of Art, Volume 5: The East (continued), Constantinople and Environs, Unknown Locations, Addenda, Uncertain Readings
- Le Corpus des sceaux de l’empire byzantin, vol. 5, L’Église