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Last updated: 29 January 2020

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abhal
Fruit produce of a certain tree known as savin, juniper, or cypress (FN 2:1271–73; Lane, 268) (Ar.)
abara, ya’biru, ibār, ibārah
To fecundate a palm-tree by means of the spadix of the male tree, which is bruised, or brayed, and sprinkled upon the spadix of the female; or by inserting the stalk of a raceme of the male tree into the spathe of the female, after shaking off the pollen of the former upon the spadix of the female (Lane, 5) (Ar.)
Abū Jiʿrān
Dung beetle (Ar.)
açmak
To bloom, to blossom, to come into flower (R) (LEH) (Ot.)
adama
Soil; ground (Heb.)
admat trashim
Rocky land unfit for cultivation (Heb.)
afar
Earth, dirt (Heb.)
afarseq
Peach (Heb.)
afrang
Magnificence, grandeur, power; throne; crown; European, Frank, (STG) (Pers.)
ağaçlık
Full of trees, well wooded, dell, wood, woodland (R) (ARK) (KAM) (HAY) (MED) (TDK) (ARS) (Ot.)
agas
Pear (Heb.)
agdāl
Synonym of buhaira (Ar.)
aghbā (m), ghaybā’ (f)
Tangled, confused, or dense, as said of branches (see ghuṣn) and trees (see shajarah) (Lane, 2228) (Ar.)
aghlāth
Bitter plants (Ar.)
agromechanika
Care and maintenance of agricultural machinery (Heb.)
agronome
Agronomist (Heb.)
agronomia
Agronomy (Heb.)
agrotechnika
The variety of methods used to work a farm (Heb.)
aḥrār
Plants that can be eaten raw (Ar.)
akarut
Working the land; agriculture (Heb.)
akirah
Uprooting, extraction (Heb.)
alāchīq
Felt tents (STG) (Pers.)
aleh
Leaf; frond (Heb.)
alvah
Foliage (Heb.)
amṭā nahrā
Fungus that grows under the sand primarily (FN 1:604–7) (Syr.)
anaf
Branch, frond, sprig (Heb.)
anāristān
Pomegranate garden (STG) (Pers.)
anbarbārīs [shajart al-]
Barberries (FN 1:163–65) (Ar.)
anbūbah, anābīb
Pipe (Ar.)
anīsh
Small garden; vineyard (STG) (Pers.)
andarūnī
Internal (STG) (Pers.)
angūristān
Vineyard (STG) (Pers.)
araya
Fruit harvest (Heb.)
arḍ
soil, earth (Ar.)
ardībihish
Second Persian month, mid-spring, April; the third day of every month, which the Persians celebrated with a festival; the angel who presides over the mountains (STG) (Pers.)
arḍı̄yābā
A Mesopotamian plant, the leaves of which are similar to the leaves of salq, though it is uncertain whether this is synonymous with the contemporary identification of salq with chard (FN 1:556) (Syr.)
arı̄ṣārūnā
a Mesopotamian plant that grows wild in the desert, the leaves of which are similar to the small leaves of the ḥummuṣ plant (Syr.)
armut
Pear (Ot.)
arsa
Courtyard within a house, unbuilt space (classical Arabic); irrigated garden smaller than an agdal (Ar.)
arugah
Flowerbed (Heb.)
asārūn
Mesopotamian plant primarily found in the wild but which had been partly adapted for gardens (FN 1:633–34) (Syr.)
asb
Horse (STG) (Pers.)
asbris
Course; race ground; open space; running place for horses; hippodrome; polo field; unit of measure of distance equal to what a person could cover between the first ray of sun and the appearance of the whole disc (experimentally measured between 147 m and 185 m) (STG) (Pers.)
asis
Nectar (Heb.)
assif
Grain harvest (Heb.)
aṣl (pl. uṣūl)
Base of plant (Ar.)
ashjār
Plants including shrubs and trees (S.B) (Urdu)
aşı
Grafting, budding; scion, graft, bud (put into the stock) (R) (NA) (Ot.)
aşı kalemi
Cutting used for grafting, scion (R) (HAY) (Ot.)
aşılama
To graft, bud (R) (TDK) (KAM) (HAY) (Ot.)
atraj [shajarat al-]
Citron tree (FN 1:178–82; Ibn Mammātī, 82) (Ar.)
atūnı̄shāthā
A plant, possibly Indian origin, brought to Mesopotamia (bābil), the seeds of which are larger than that of saljam (rapeseed) and the flowers yellow as that of the saljam plant (FN 1:534–55) (Syr.)
atzhitz
Flowerpot, planter (Heb.)
avatiyakh
Watermelon (Heb.)
avodath adama
Agriculture, working the land (Heb.)
avoq
Spreading of powder (Heb.)
awrang
Throne; glory; heaven (STG) (Pers.)
a’yin
Fountain, natural source of water (Heb.)
ays
Woodland (FED) (Ot.)
ayvān
Sofa; portico, open gallery, veranda; balcony on the top of a house, for the benefit of the view and fresh air; palace; the heavens; ayvān-i zarkārī sphere of the moon; ayvān-i māh heaven of this world (STG) (Pers.)
ayvān-i kasrā
kisrā, from Pahlavi Chosroes (STG) (Pers.)
azādarakht [shajarat al-], also arzdarakht
China tree, paradise tree, melia (FN 1:167–68; Wehr, 15) (Ar.)
azhār
Flowers; flowering, blossoming (STG) (Pers.)
āb
Water; river; prosperity, power, glory. The word is often used in compounds and metaphorical expressions (STG) (Pers.)
āb afshān
āb + afshān (in comp.) dispersing, scattering, diffusing (STG) (Pers.)
āb anbār
āb + anbār pond, reservoir (STG) (Pers.)
āb bāra
āb + bāra aqueduct; an elevated structure of masonry used for the conveyance of water from place to place (Pers.)
āb guẕar
Canal, channel for water (STG) (Pers.)
āb khīz
Spring, issue of water; springy ground, where water is found after digging a little depth; canal, aqueduct (STG) (Pers.)
āb khvur
Lake, pool, ditch; fountainhead; watering place on a riverbank (STG) (Pers.)
āb namā
āb + namā (showing) a shallow water basin usually in front of a building in gardens (Pers.)
āb pāshān
Name of a Persian festival, on which occasion one sprinkles rose water on his neighbor (STG) (Pers.)
āb pakhshān
āb + bakhsh or pakhsh (division). The word bakhsh as well as the term bāgh, “garden,” derive from the same root bagh, meaning “partition.” (Pers.)
āb rāh
Canal, conduit, pipe, aqueduct, watercourse, channel of a river, any place through which water flows (STG) (Pers.)
āb rāha
Watercourse (STG) (Pers.)
āb rīzān
Name of the thirteenth day of the month of Tir. Recalls the sudden rainfall, after many years of drought, at the prayer of the assembled people, who in their joy sprinkled each other with water (STG) (Pers.)
āb rīzgān
Festival celebrated on the thirteenth day of the month of Tir, during which people visit each other and sprinkle orange blossom, rose, or pure water on one another (STG) (Pers.)
āb rasānī
āb + rasānī to cause to arrive, convey, carry and deliver (STG) (Pers.)
āb yārī
Irrigation, to irrigate; āb yārī kardan to water fields (STG) (Pers.)
ābād
City, building, habitation; cultivated, peopled, full of buildings and inhabitants. When added to a noun it denotes a city or place of abode (STG) (Pers.)
ābād kardan
To cultivate, render delightful, improve, recreate, refresh (STG) (Pers.)
ābān
Eight month of Persian year, during which the sun continues in Scorpio; tenth day of any Persian month; name of a certain angel, whom the pagan Persians supposed to preside over iron and over the actions performed during the month or on the day above mentioned (STG) (Pers.)
ābāngāh
Tenth day of the month of Farvardin; name of an angel said to preside over water (STG) (Pers.)
āb-dih
Splendor-giving (STG) (Pers.)
āb-e-ravān
Flowing water (F.U.E.D) (C.C) (Urdu)
āb-e-hayāt
Elixir of life (F.U.E.D) (B.S) (Urdu)
āb-i barīn
Bank of a river constantly being undermined by its current (STG) (Pers.)
ābdān
Vessel holding water; cistern, or any reservoir of water, such as a lake, ditch, or bath (STG); pond, lake, confluence of water (JNS) (Pers.)
ābgah
Watering place, cistern, reservoir (STG) (Pers.)
ābgīna
Glass; the heavens (STG) (Pers.)
ābgina khānah
Greenhouse, room hung with mirrors; the first and second heavens (STG) (Pers.)
ābgir
Large water body; lake (S.N) (Urdu)
ābgīr
Any hollow place where water collects or stagnates; pool, pond, ditch (STG) (Pers.)
ābishkhvur
Cistern, watering place, reservoir; riverbed; fountainhead; lot, portion (STG) (Pers.)
ābsāl
Garden (STG) (Pers.)
ābsālān
Garden (STG) (Pers.)
ābshār
Cascade of water (Tadhkira) (Urdu)
ābshār
Waterfall, cataract (STG) (Pers.)
ābshīb
Waterfall (Pers.)
ābyār
Waterer, sprinkler, irrigator, irrigation (STG) (Pers.)
ādhriyūn
Marigold (FN 1:137–38) (Ar.)
āfāh (pl. āfāt)
Disease, illness, affliction (see also Ar. maraḍ and suqm) (Ar.)
āpādānā
Loggia supported by columns or great columned room (Pers.)
ārāmgāh
Place of rest; tomb, mausoleum (STG) (Pers.)
ārāmgāh
Bedchamber; resting or halting place (F.D) (SN) (Urdu)
ārāstan
To adorn, decorate, embellish, to set in order; gul ārāstan to adorn with flowers (gul) (STG) (Pers.)
ās [shajarat al-]
Myrtle (FN 1:142–47) (Ar.)
āshkūy
Palace; upper room; elevated place (STG) (Pers.)
āyina khānah
Loggia or room in which the columns and part of the walls and ceilings are covered with small pieces of glass (CST); āyina glass + khānah house (Pers.)
āyinakāri
Decorative mirrors (STG) (Pers.)
āzhgan
Latticed door, lattices (STG) (Pers.)

bachir
The first fruit to ripen (Heb.)
bad
Enclosure, hedge, fence (TRM) (Ot.)
badıralan
Garden or vineyard without walls (TRM) (Ot.)
bağ
Vineyard, garden, orchard (R) (NA) (ARS) (TDK) (KAM) (Ot.)
bağ aralamak
To prune the vines (R) (TRM) (Ot.)
bağ ayıtlamak
To prune a vineyard, to prune (MEN) (Ot.)
bağ bahçe
Vineyards and orchards (R) (TDK) (Ot.)
bağ bozumu
Vintage (R); autumn (TRM) (Ot.)
bağ budaması
To prune a vineyard (R) (TRM) (Ot.)
bağ çapası
Hoe, mattock (TRM) (Ot.)
bağ çırpmak
To prune, to trim the vine (TRM) (Ot.)
bağ çubuğu
Vine shoot, vine cutting (R) (TDK) (TRM) (KUB) (Ot.)
bağ depmek
To dig, to fork, to grub, and to spade a garden or vineyard (TRM) (Ot.)
bağ-ı cennet
Garden of paradise (R) (TÜR) (Ot.)
bağ makası
Pruning shears (TRM) (Ot.)
bağ-ı adn
The garden of Eden (R) (Ot.)
bağ-ı cinan
Garden of paradise (R) (NA) (RIZ) (Ot.)
bağ-ı dehr
The garden of the world (R) (YED) (Ot.)
bağ-ı İrem
Garden of Iram (R); the mythical gardens said to have been made in Damascus or Yemen alike paradise (YED) (KUB) (Ot.)
bağcı
Grape grower (R); vine grower, “viticulturist.” (TRM) (Ot.)
bağcı bıçağı
Pruning knife (TRM) (Ot.)
bağça
Synonym of çimen; meadow, lawn, turf, orchard (MEN) (Ot.)
bağçe
Synonym of bahçe; garden, small vineyard (R) (MED) (DGA) (TRM) (KUB); garden where vegetables and flowers are grown (ATI) (Ot.)
bağçevan
Synonym of bağcıvan; gardener (R) (MED) (OSM) (KAM) (DGA) (MÜK) (KUB) (Ot.)
bagh
Ditch (Z. bagho); name of an idol; a god; baghdād God-given, in the composition of names (STG) (Pers.)
baghistān
bagh god + istān place (Pers.)
bağıstan
Garden, vineyard, orchard (OTS) (OSM) (MED) (Ot.)
bağlık
Place with vineyards, piece of ground suitable for a vineyard; tract with many vineyards (R) (TDK) (TRM) (KUB) (TEM) (Ot.)
bağlık bahçelik
Place with many vineyards and gardens (TDK) (MED) (KUB) (Ot.)
bahār
Spring season. In classical literature, various seasons in a garden are associated with appropriate moods. For example, khiza’n (autumn) was associated with sadness and bahar (spring) with happiness and prosperity. This is expressed for instance in Bāgh-o-bahār tabiyat (jovial nature) and dil bāgh bāgh ho jana (being happy) (F.U.E.D) (C. C) (Urdu)
bahār
Spring, beginning of summer; blossom; bahār-i nārinj orange flower; Buddhist temple; idol, the harem of a prince; species of odoriferous herb; anything beautiful and splendid; bahār afshān scattering blossoms; bahārān spring; bahār band airy house inhabited in springtime; a place where horses are tied up in spring; bahār khāna any high building (Pers.)
bahār (pl. bahārāt)
Spice (Ar.)
bahārkhvāb
The text refers to the bahārkhvāb of the Khvaju bridge in Isfahan. That place was unique, as it had a better view and was cooler than the arcades above the bridge and the terraces below the arches (Pers.)
bahar açmak
To blossom (NA) (HAY) (Ot.)
bahçe
Garden, park (R) (NA); vegetable garden, kitchen garden, place where flowers and trees are grown (TDK) (OSM); place where flowers, trees, and vegetables are grown (ARK); place where flowers, trees with or without fruits, and vegetables are grown, usually adjacent to a house; same as ravza, bağ, firdevs, bostan: çiçek bahçesi, sebze bahçesi (KAM); small vineyard; place where flowers and vegetables are grown, park (MED); (Ottoman bağçe, ravza, hadīka) (ARS); enclosed place where flowers, trees and vegetables are grown (TRM) (TEM) (RTK) (YTL) (VLD) (KUB) (Ot.)
bahçe
Synonym of bahça, bağçe; garden, park (R) (NA) (Ot.)
bahçe aletleri
Garden tools (TRM) (Ot.)
bahçe avlu
Court garden, courtyard garden; courtyard where there are lawn and flower beds; in cloisters, hospital, or jails, uncovered garden for patients or prisoners to get fresh air and to walk, surrounded with buildings (ARS) (Ot.)
bahçe avlusu
Garden yard, a courtyard with lawn and flower beds in the middle (TRM) (Ot.)
bahçe çapası
Hoe, mattock (TRM) (Ot.)
bahçe evi
Small summer house in the vineyards (TRM) (Ot.)
bahçe köşkü
Garden pavilion (NA) (Ot.)
bahçe makası
Pruning shears (NA) (KUB) (Ot.)
bahçe tarağı
Rake to put the garden soil in order (TRM) (Ot.)
bahçe tırmığı
Rake, a tool with iron teeth to clear the soil off stones and litter (TRM) (Ot.)
bahçecilik
Horticulture, gardening (MED) (KAM) (TDK); the art of gardening (TRM); growing every kind of plants such as vegetables, young plants, fruits (KUB); making and growing gardens (TEM) (Ot.)
bahçeli kent
Garden city, a city enclosed with a green belt (ÇEV) (Ot.)
bahçelik
Place full of gardens (R); place for vineyards and gardens (TDK); a place with many gardens (KAM); (HAY); a place with many gardens, a place suitable to make garden (MED); full of gardens or a place suitable to make garden (TRM); a place full of gardens (RTK) (VLD) (KUB) (Ot.)
bahçıvan
Gardener (R) (NA) (TDK) (KAM) (HAY) (MED) (LEH); Gardener, “horticulturist.” (Ot.)
bahçıvan bıçağı
Pruning shears (TRM) (Ot.)
bahçıvan tarağı
Rake (R) (ARS) (Ot.)
bahāristān
Springtime, green place with many flowers; spring, place of verdure and blossom (R) (NA) (FED) (OSM) (KUB) (Ot.)
bak
Retreat, asylum; forest, wild uncultivated country (STG) (Pers.)
balaḥ
Date (Ibn Mammātı̄, 82; Lane, 246; Wehr, 87) (Ar.)
balça
Garden (RİZ) (Ot.)
ballūṭ [shajarat al-]
Oak (FN 1:640–41; FN 2:1182–83) (Ar.)
ban
Garden, sown field; harvest; van Persian turpentine seed (STG) (Pers.)
banafsha zār
Banafsha pūsh covered or adorned with violets (STG) (Pers.)
banafsaj
Violet (FN 1:111–26; Ibn Mammātı̄, 82) (Ar.)
band
Dam, dike, or any enclosure of water (STG) (Pers.)
bandāb
Dyke, embankment; island (STG) (Pers.)
banj
Henbane (Ar.)
banjar
Beet, sugar beet (see also Ot. pancar) (Ar.)
bao’li/wain
Step well, the descent to the brink of which is by long flights of steps with landings and covered chambers where travelers may rest during the heat of the day (F.U.E.D) (B.N) (S.N) (Urdu)
baql (pl. buqūl)
Kind of herbs; potherbs (Ar.)
baqmāhah
The litter or organic remnant/detritus (see ithr) of flax, (Ibn Mammātı̄, 202) (Ar.)
barādari
Open pavilion constructed either of brick, marble, or red sandstone. This term seems to be of recent origin as it is not found in Mughal sources. It may be a corruption of the term baran dar aaien (to enter in the rain) (F.D) (T.A.L) (Urdu)
bara
Cut or uproot trees (Heb.)
baram
Trellis (STG) (Pers.)
barbakh (pl. barābikh)
Waterpipe, drain, canal, sewer (Ar.)
barı
To shelter, to protect (R); garden wall, fence (TDK) (KAM); garden or courtyard wall (ZAN) (Ot.)
barınak
Shelter, refuge (R) (Ottoman melce); penthouse, open shed in the gardens and in the streets to shelter from rain and sun (ARS) (Ot.)
barm
Reservoir for rainwater (STG) (Pers.)
barsam
Rods of a span in length used by the fire-worshipers in their ceremonies (STG) (Pers.)
barsam Ḥijāzī (also barsı̄m)
Lucerne, alfalfa (see also fiṣfiṣah) (Ar.)
barsı̄m (Ar.)
Clover (see also nafal) (Ar.)
barshāwushān
Maiden’s hair (FN 1:60) (Ar.)
barsh naqā
An Egyptian phrase used to described earth that has become bereft of any organic litter or remnant (see ithr) that was incorporated into the soil the previous year; untended or fallow land (Ar.)
barwīyah
The litter or organic remnant/detritus (see ithr) of wheat and barley (Ibn Mammātī, 201) (Ar.)
basāk
Garland of flowers (STG) (Pers.)
basāt
Extensive (tract of country); anything spread out; carpet; bedding; the earth (STG) (Pers.)
basfāyaj, basbāyaj
Polypodium vulgare (FN 1:290; Ibn Baytar, 1:135) (Ar.)
basha
A general name for weeds growing among cultivated plants and impeding their growth (Heb.)
bashmalah [shajarat al-]
Loquat tree (Ar.)
baṣal
Onion (FN 1:565–72) (Ar.)
baṭı̄kh
Watermelon (Ibn Mammātī, 82) (Ar.)
bazmgāh
Banqueting house (STG) (Pers.)
bābūnaj
Camomile (see uqḥuwān) (Ar.)
bādiyah
Desert, desolate steppe; wasteland (Ar.)
bādhrūj
Lemon balm; sweet basil or lemon basil (FN 2:775–79; Dozy Supplément 1:47–48) (Ar.)
bāgh
Generally refers to an orchard with or without fence or wall. When a bagh is a formal garden it is enclosed by a diwar (wall), and when it belongs to a qasr (palace gardens) it is enclosed by a hisār (fortification wall). It includes orchards such as bādāmi bāgh (the garden of almonds), and anguri bāgh (the garden of grapes or vineyard). In literary texts bāgh appears as both a prime and ancillary source of imagery of nature. As a poetic image, it stands for order and beauty, the mythical link between man and nature, heaven and earth. When used in Persian literature it refers comprehensively to all the natural wonders within a garden (B.N) (F.U.E.D) (B.S) (Urdu)
bāgh
Garden; vineyard; the world; face of the beloved (STG) (Pers.).
bāgh-i iram
Name of the fabulous gardens, said to have been devised by Shaddād in emulation of the gardens of paradise (STG) (Pers.)
bāgh-i quds
The firmament; paradise (STG) (Pers.)
bāgh-i rafi'
The firmament; paradise (STG) (Pers.)
bāgh-i sakhā
The firmament; paradise (STG) (Pers.)
bāgh-i takht
Terrace; bāgh garden + takht throne (Pers.)
bāgh-i vasi'
The firmament; paradise (STG) (Pers.)
bāghbān
Gardener (F.D) (B.K) (Urdu)
bāghbān
Gardener; vine dresser (STG) (Pers.)
bāghbāni
Care of a garden, horticulture; bāghbāni numūdan to keep or dress a garden, to practice horticulture (STG) (Pers.)
bāghcha
Small garden, a garden (STG) (Pers.)
bāghcha
Small garden or orchard usually associated with residences (F.U.E.D) (B.N) (Urdu)
bāghcha bandī
Ornamental gardening; bāghcha bandī kardan to lay out in flowerbeds (STG) (Pers.)
bāghistān
Land of gardens (B.S.) (Urdu)
bāghistān
Vineyard; palace park; gardens and vineyards surrounding a town (STG) (Pers.)
bālākhānah
Upper chamber, gallery, or balcony on top of the house; parlor (STG) (Pers.)
bāmyah
Okra (qināwīyah in Tunisia and Algeria; mulūḫīyah in Morocco, not to be confused with Egyptian mulūḫīyah, i.e., Jew’s mallow); also known in Hebrew as bamyah (Arabic and Ottoman Turkish)
bāq
The litter or organic remnant/detritus (see ithr) of a type of Egyptian leek known as qirṭ, the legume known as qaṭṭānı̄, and the maqātī (translation unknown), and which is known for being one of the best such materials for cultivating wheat and flax (Ibn Mammātī, 201) (Ar.)
bāqillā
Beans (Ar.)
bār
Fruit, flowers, blossom; court, assembly; curtain at the door of a pavilion; bār dādan to grant an audience; bār-i ‘ām public audience (STG) (Pers.)
bārū
Wall, rampart, bulwark, fortification; fort; tower; battlements, embrasures (STG) (Pers.)
bār-i cām
Public audience (STG) (Pers.)
bāra
Walls, fortifications, anything which divides or separates two objects; bāra-yi nuhum the ninth heaven (STG) (Pers.)
bārgāh
Place of leave or admission applied to ambassadors and supplicants, i.e. the king’s court, palace, tent, tribunal, audience hall (STG) (Pers.)
b'chira
The first rains of the season (Heb.)
behisht
A paradise (F.U.E.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
belleme
To dig over with a fork or spade (R) (ZAN) (Ot.)
ber
Well (Heb.)
berçin
Walled garden, walled field (TRM) (Ot.)
berhūn
Hedge, fence (FED) (OSM) (Ot.)
beshola
Ripe fruit (Heb.)
besātīn
Gardens (R); vegetable gardens, melon gardens, kitchen gardens (FED) (ATI) (LEH) (Ot.)
beyūn
Synonym of bāin; large well (FED) (Ot.)
bihisht
Paradise; heaven; bihisht zār place like heaven (STG) (Pers.)
bikurim
The first fruits that were presented in the Temple on the holiday of Shavu’ot (Pentecost) (Heb.)
bi’r, bīr (pl. ābār)
Well (Ar.)
birka
Reservoir of water, pond, pool, ditch (STG) (Pers.)
bisārah
Bench; portico, veranda (STG) (Pers.)
bisārdah
Plowed; watered (STG) (Pers.)
bisārdan
To plow, to break up fallow ground (STG) (Pers.)
bitek
Fertile soil (R) (TDK) (KAM) (Ot.)
bitelge
Fertility of the soil (TDK) (Ot.)
bizr[ah] (pl. buzūr)
Seed; kernel, pip, pit, stone (of fruit) (Ar.)
bīdistān
Grove of willows, osier-bed (STG) (Pers.)
bīl
Shovel, spade; oar; gardener, vine dresser; well (in Zand and Pāzand) (STG) (Pers.)
bīrūnī
External (STG) (Pers.)
bīsutūn
Without pillars; name of a mountain in Persia; the heavens (STG) (Pers.)
bīsha
Forest, wood, wild, uncultivated country; country overgrown with reeds and the like (STG) (Pers.)
bīyābān
Uncultivated, deserted; desert (STG) (Pers.)
bor
Fallow; uncultivated field (Heb.)
borit, birit
Strap or tie that binds a plow-shaft to the knees of the plower (Heb.)
boriyot
Trees and other orchard species that are damaged and do not bear fruit (Heb.)
bosem
Perfume, scent (Heb.)
bostan
Garden, vegetable garden, melon garden, kitchen garden (R) (NA) (TDK); synonym of çemen, çemenzar, sebzezar, yeşillik, yeşilistan, murğuzar, bağça, büstan, kiştzar, çayır, sebzistan (MEN); garden; vegetable garden (ATI); garden, flower garden vegetable garden, melon, watermelon (KAM); (LEH); field where melons and watermelons are grown, common term for melon and watermelon, cucumber (MED); kitchen garden, vegetable garden, melon garden; a common term for melon and watermelon, cucumber (TRM); large vegetable garden (TRK) (Ot.)
bostan beli
Gardener’s spade with a very long handle (R) (TRM) (Ot.)
bostan beygiri
Horse that turns a waterwheel (R) (KUB) (Ot.)
bostan çapası
Garden hoe (TRM) (Ot.)
bostan dolabı
Noria, waterwheel for irrigation (R) (TDK) (ARS) (TRM) (ARS) (KUB) (Ot.)
bostan korkuluğu
Scarecrow (R) (TDK) (MED) (HAY) (TRM) (KUB) (Ot.)
bostan kuyusu
Large but not very deep well (TRM); well large enough and with sufficient water for the waterwheel to turn and water the garden (KUB) (Ot.)
bostancı
Market gardener, vegetable gardener; member of the Ottoman imperial guard (R) (NA); gardener of an orchard, guards of the imperial gardens (guarded the imperial court court as well as imperial gardens) (TDK) (HAY); gardener of an orchard, guards of the imperial gardens, Ottoman imperial guards who had jurisdiction over the imperial gardens and shores and waters of the Bosphorus (HUK) (TEM) (TRH) (VLD) (KUB); synonym of bağçaci, bağçavan, bağçaban, büstani, büsti, salataci, bakkal, bakıl, tere-füruş, sebze-füruş, budayici (MEN); synonym of hadīka-bān (LEH); gardener of an orchard, guards of the imperial gardens (TRM) (Ot.)
bostancıbaşı
Ottoman commander of the imperial guards who had jurisdiction over the imperial gardens and shores and waters of the Bosporos (R) (NA) (OTR) (TDS) (KUB) (Ot.)
botanika
Botany (Heb.)
boustropedon
An ancient method of writing in which the lines are inscribed alternately from right to left and from left to right the way an ox turns while plowing (Heb.)
bozmak
To harvest grapes, vintage (TDK); to harvest the fruits of a garden (ATI) (KUB) (Ot.)
buhaira
Garden designed around a huge water reservoir and surrounded by fortified walls (Ar.)
bunāb
The bottom or depth of water (STG) (Pers.)
bunduq (pl. banādiq)
Hazelnut (FN 2:1180–81) (Ar.)
bunk
Root, core, heart, best part (FN 1:95; Wehr, 94) (Ar.)
burghul
Bulgur, crushed wheat, grits (Ar.)
burj
Tower; dovecote; constellation of stars; station of a planet (STG) (Pers.)
burun
Tip, pointed end (R) (NA) (Ot.)
bustān farāz
Rose bed (STG) (Pers.)
bustānārāy
Gardener (Pers.)
bustānbān
Gardener, vine dresser (STG) (Pers.)
bustānchi
Gardener (MUN) (Pers.)
bustānī
Hortulan; gardener (STG) (Pers.)
bustānpirā
Gardener, vine dresser (STG) (Pers.)
bustānsārāy
Palace garden (STG) (Pers.)
bustan
Orchard cultivated for profit and pleasure (Morocco) (Ar.)
bustan
Orchard (Heb.)
buṭum [shajarat al-]
Turpentine tree (terebinth) (Ar.)
būm
Country, region; desert land not yet cultivated; mansion or place where one dwells in safety (STG) (Pers.)
būstān
Baghs containing aromatic flowering plants spreading sweet scented smells; vegetable garden (F.D) (B.S) (Urdu)
būstān (pl. basātīn)
Place of perfume, garden, kitchen garden, green space; name of many Arabian and Persian books, the most celebrated of which is the Būstān-i Sa‛dī (STG) (Pers.)
būy
Odor, fragrance, perfume; scent, spice; portion, part, lot (STG) (Pers.)
bāğ-ı bahar
Spring garden (R); spring garden, promenade, world (FED) (Ot.)
bāgat
Vineyards, gardens, orchards (FED) (ATI) (OTS) (Ot.)
bāğbān
Gardener, vine grower (R) (NA) (BAH) (KAM) (FED) (RTK) (Ot.)
bāğistan
Place full of many gardens and vineyards (KUB) (FED) (KAM) (Ot.)
bāin
Large well (FED) (OKS) (Ot.)
būstān
Garden, flower garden, full of perfume (FED) (MÜK) (KUB) (Ot.)
būstān-bān
Gardener (FED) (Ot.)

camekān
Greenhouse; glasshouse, hothouse, conservatory (ARS) (HAY) (TRM) (Ot.)
camlı köşk
Glasshouse (ARS) (TDK) (KUB) (Ot.)
camlık
Place shut in with glass (R) (TDK) (KAM) (MED) (HAY) (MED) (LEH) (ARS) (KUB) (Ot.)
carmen
Spanish form of the Arabic karm vineyard, or domain planted with vineyards. In al-Andalus, a garden with connotations of pleasant retirement. In agricultural texts of al-Andalus, karm (pl. kurum) is an agricultural domain forming an entity, and in Nasrid Granada (fourteenth century), it implies both agricultural use and residential leisure (Ar.)
cennān
Gardener (FED) (Ot.)
cennāt
Plural of paradise, heaven (R) (FED); full of trees, garden, watery place (OTS); gardens of paradise (FED) (Ot.)
chabutra
Raised bank or terrace; platform (F.U.E.D) (T.J) (Urdu)
chafror
Mattock (Heb.)
chaft
Saloon built of wood and supported on columns; prop, trellis; chaft-i falak the celestial vault (STG) (Pers.)
chafta
Prop for a vine; bat; vaulted roof (STG) (Pers.)
chahār bālish
Royal throne, place spread with four cushions; the four elements; the four quarters of the globe; the world; quadrangular tent (STG) (Pers.)
chahār basit
The four elements (STG) (Pers.)
chahār chaman
The world (STG) (Pers.)
chahār dāng
The four quarters (STG) (Pers.)
chahār divār
The four quarters of the world; the four elements (water, earth, wind, and fire) (STG) (Pers.)
chahār divāri/chahār divār
Enclosure wall, four walls enclosing any ground/structure (S.N) (Urdu)
chahār hāshīya
Having four borders (STG) (Pers.)
chahār jūy
Rivers of paradise (STG) (Pers.)
chahār sūq
Marketplace (STG) (Pers.)
chahār tāq
A kind of tent (STG) (Pers.)
chahārbāgh
chārbāgh a palace; chārbāgh name of celebrated royal gardens in the environs of Ispahan and near Dehli, hence in general a royal garden or park (STG) (Pers.)
chahārpāra
Four parts; divided into or consisting of four parts (STG) (Pers.)
chaiad
Everlasting; aizoon (Heb.)
chaklai
Farmer (Heb.)
chakla'ut
Agriculture; farming (Heb.)
chalok, chelek
Smooth stone, pebble (Heb.)
chamānīdan
To walk gracefully; chamān walking; cham an easy air, a swinging or vacillating motion in walking; chaman gard walking about in the gardens; chaman sair = chaman sayr promenading in the gardens; chaman suffa a garden seat; chaman tarāz gardener; chaman pīrā gardener; chaman band gardener; chamansāz gardener; chaman afrūz brightening the garden (applied to various flowers) (STG); chamish a portly gait in walking (Pers.)
chamama
Greenhouse (Heb.)
chaman
Vineyards and orchards, particularly orchards of pomegranates. Flowering shrubs are also an integral part of a chaman and different varieties of flowering plants provide a visual delight and promote spiritual solace. Generally lacks a pavilion or any other architectural embellishment. Vines are allowed to dominate the landscape. Large bāghs frequently contain smaller sections designed as chaman. Chamans are planted with sabza (grass); hence the term is also used to denote a meadow (F.U.E.D) (Qasā’id) (Urdu)
chaman
Orchard, fruit garden; meadow, green field, verdant plain, garden plot or bed, raised border, parterre, avenue; pasture ground (STG) (Pers.)
chaman band
Gardener; fountain (STG) (Pers.)
chaman pīrā
Gardener, pruner (STG) (Pers.)
chaman pirān
Gardener designers dealing with planting (F.U.E.D) (Qasā’id) (Urdu)
chamanistān
Verdant meadows (STG) (Pers.)
chamanzār
Verdant meadows; prairie (STG) (Pers.)
chamra
Red loam (Heb.)
chanat
Ripen (Heb.)
chapar
Palisade; wooden hut (STG) (Pers.)
charaba
A knife for figs (Heb.)
charish
Plowing; plowing season (Heb.)
charisha
Plowing (Heb.)
charisha
Grove (Heb.)
charsit
Red soil; clay (Heb.)
charul
Thom, nettle, bramble (Heb.)
chashma
Spring (F.U.E.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
chasina
Wicker basket (Heb.)
chativa
Cutting, chopping (Heb.)
chatr
Umbrella, parasol (especially as an ensign of royalty); tent (STG) (Pers.)
chatzatz
Rubble; gravel (Heb.)
chatzer
Yard, court, enclosure in village or town (Heb.)
chava
Farm, ranch (Heb.)
chavai
Farmer (Heb.)
chavaot
Farming (Heb.)
chavilla
Villa (Heb.)
chawgān
The game of polo or horse shinty; stick having one end arched, to which is suspended an iron or steel ball, carried as an ensign of royalty (STG) (Pers.)
chādur
Water chute or sheet. Chādur was introduced when a watercourse falls from a high level. Literally, chādur means “sheet,” but as an architectural element it is a waterfall over which water flows down like a sheet. It constitutes an important element of visual design. Marble and sandstones were carved in various patterns, angles, and forms so that when water runs over them, the water produced an interesting texture and sound. The Nishat garden in Kashmir is perhaps the finest example where water chutes are used at almost every level difference (S.N) (Urdu)
chādur
Tent, pavilion; chādur-i āb waterfall, cascade; chādur-i lājavard the azure sky, a verdant meadow (STG) (Pers.)
chāh
Well. There ware three main sources of the supply of water to the gardens: canal, wells, and rainwater. Lands watered via canals are termed nehri, those by wells chāhi, and those by rainwater barani. During the Mughal period doabs (land between two rivers) were mostly irrigated by chāhi (F.U.E.D) (Bayaz) (Urdu)
chāl
Ravine (STG) (Pers.)
chekal
Field (Heb.)
cheled
World; earth (Heb.)
chelka
Field plot; lot (Heb.)
chenet, chanita
Ripening (Heb.)
chermesh
Sickle (Heb.)
chermeshit
Curved knife (a small sickle) (Heb.)
cherut
Palm branch, palm leaf (Heb.)
chevla
Property; estate (Heb.)
chihil sutūn
Colonnade (STG) (Pers.)
chināristān
Place where china is kept; an apartment adorned with china (STG) (Pers.)
chiposhit
Beetle (Heb.)
chirāghān
An illumination (STG) (Pers.)
chisa
Bushes, brush (Heb.)
chishma
Fountain, source, spring; a vaulted arch; chishma-yi akhz̤ar fountain of immortality; chishma-yi pul arch of a bridge; chishma-yi khiz̤r and chishma-yi nūsh fountain of life; chishma-yi salsabīl spring or river in paradise (STG) (Pers.)
chishma-yi shīr
Stream of milk in paradise (MUN) (Pers.)
chīna
Course of bricks or stone in a wall; layers of large stones, bricks, or turfs in building walls (STG) (Pers.)
chīnī khāna
Place where china is kept; an apartment adorned with china (STG) (Pers.)
chocher
Renter, tenant, lessee (Heb.)
chol
Sand (Heb.)
choma
Wall (Heb.)
choref
Winter (Heb.)
choresh, chorsha
Grove (Heb.)
choter
Branch that emerges from the tree trunk close to the roots (Heb.)
chotev
Woodcutter (Heb.)
chūbbast
Scaffold (STG) (Pers.)
chūgh
Yoke; trench or canal cut through gardens or meadows; dam (STG) (Pers.)
ciba
Small garden, courtyard (TRM) (Ot.)
cirid
Synonym of cirit; stick used as a dart in the mounted game of jereed (R) (NA) (Ot.)
çahar-bağ
Synonym of cahar bağ; a Persian garden-type divided by two paths into four sections (NA) (Ot.)
çalılık
Thicket, bushes, brushwood (R) (MEN) (ARS) (MED) (Ot.)
çapalamak
To hoe (R) (TDK) (Ot.)
çardak
Pergola, trellis, bower, gazebo (R) (NA) (KAM) (MED) (ARS) (LEH) (MED) (TRM) (TEM) (Ot.)
çarh-ı āb-kesī
Persian waterwheel (R); as bostan dolabı, noria, waterwheel for irrigation (FED) (Ot.)
çelik aşısı
Bud into the stock, grafting, budding (MED) (Ot.)
çelki
Garden cottage, vineyard hut (TRM) (Ot.)
çemenbend
Gardener (R) (OTS) (Ot.)
çemenistān
Meadow land, garden (HAY) (OSM) (FED) (KUB) (Ot.)
çemenzār
Synonym of çemenistān, meadowland; green meadow, grassy plot (R) (MEN) (NA); meadowland, garden (TRK) (Ot.)
çemenārā
Gardener (R) (FED) (Ot.)
çengel
Full of trees, wooded, wood, copse, bush (OSM) (OTS) (Ot.)
çeper
Wall, fence (R) (TDK-2); small garden, small vegetable garden (KAM) (TRM); stone garden wall (ZAN) (Ot.)
çepin
Gardener's hoe, small hoe (R) (TDK) (KAM) (TRM) (TEM) (Ot.)
çerge
Small hut or a makeshift tent in an orchard (R) (ZAN) (Ot.)
çevirme
Small enclosed garden (KAM) (TRM) (Ot.)
çevlik
Synonym of çevirme; small walled garden or field (ATI) (MER) (TRM) (Ot.)
çevlük
Kitchen garden in front of a house (ZAN) (Ot.)
çevre duvarı
Wall enclosing a garden or a field (ARS) (Ot.)
çiçek bahçesi
Flower garden (TRM) (R) (NA) (TRM) (Ot.)
çiçek tarhı
Parterre, flowerbed (R) (NA) (TRM) (Ot.)
çiçekçilik
Floriculture, florist (R) (TDK) (MED) (ARK) (Ot.)
çiçekdanlık
Floriculture, florist (R) (TDK) (MED) (ARK) (Ot.)
çiçekdanlık
Synonym of çiçeklik; vase, flower vase, flower stand, flower garden, flowerbed, flower house; conservatory, receptacle (R) (OSM) (Ot.)
çit
Hedge; fence of hurdles, fence (R) (TDK) (OSM) (TSD) (ATI) (ARS) (DLT) (TRM) (TEM) (KUB) (Ot.)
çitenlik
Garden, courtyard, kitchen garden (TRM) (Ot.)
çiti
Synonym of çit; hedge; fence of hurdles, fence (R), trellis (ARS) (Ot.)
çocuk bahçesi
Children’s park (R) (HAY) (MED) (TDK) (ARS) (EGT) (KUB) (Ot.)
çocuk parkı
Synonym of çocuk bahçesi; children’s park (R) (MED) (Ot.)

dabbūr
Hornet; wasp (see also Ar. zunbūr) (Ar.)
dabūr
Westerly wind, zephyr (Ar.)
dachlil
Scarecrow (Heb.)
daghal (pl. adghāl)
Place with luxuriant tree growth; thicket, bush, jungle (Wehr 328) (Ar.)
daghil[ah]
Covered with dense overgrowth (Wehr, 328) (Ar.)
dahmasht [darakht-i dahmasht]
Bay laurel tree (Pers.)
dakka
Bench; counter for sitting (STG) (Pers.)
darakht
Tree (Pers.)
darbār
House, dwelling; court, area; court or levee of a prince; audience chamber (STG) (Pers.)
dardār [shajarat al-]
Elm tree (possibly) (FN 1:173–74; Wehr, 320) (Ar.)
dargāh
King’s court; port, portal, gate, door; lower threshold; court before a palace or great house; large bench or place for reclining; mosque (STG) (Pers.)
darsār
Curtain hung before a door, an antechamber, an outer wall (STG) (Pers.)
darwāza
Entrance door or gate (F.U.E.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
daryācha
Lake, pool (STG) (Pers.)
dasht
Desert, plain without water; burial ground (STG) (Pers.)
dastgird
Pahlavi dastgirt (Pers.)
dawā (pl. adwiyah)
Medicine, remedy (Ar.)
dawḥah [shajarat al-]
Large tree with widespread branches (Lane, 929; Wehr, 343) (Ar.)
dawlatkhānah
Palace; dawlatkhāna-i khās the king’s palace (STG) (Pers.)
dawlatkhānah
Mansion, palace, house (F.U.E.D.) (S.N) (Urdu)
dālān
Courtyard, large hall (F.U.E.D) (M.A) (Urdu)
dālān
Hall, vestibule; covered way; corridor (STG) (Pers.)
dār
Beam; roof of a house; tree (Pahlavi); dār-i razān vine trellis; house, dwelling; seat; country, district; dār ‘l imārat royal residence, capital; dār‘l saltanah royal residence (STG) (Pers.)
dārafzīn
Anything upon which one leans; raised bench or sofa; screen, lattice (STG) (Pers.)
dārbast
Vine trellis (STG) (Pers.)
dārkhāl
Ungrafted tree; branch; sapling (STG) (Pers.)
dārūmı̄qā
A plant otherwise known in Persian as kashanj (FN 1:597–98) (Syr.)
dās
Sickle (STG) (Pers.)
deshen
Chemical fertilizer, ash (Heb.)
dhurrah (pl. dhurar or dhurāt)
Seed, grain, corn (as miniscule measure of weight, see Q 99:7–8; 34:3, 22; 10:61; 4:40) (Ar.)
diflā [shajarat al-]
Oleander (FN 1:183–84; Wehr, 331); rose-bay or laurel-bay; oleander, rhododendron, or rhododaphne (Lane, 893) (Ar.)
diken
Thorn (Ottoman Tukrish)
dikim
Planting, as in dikim zamanı (planting season), also referred to in classical Ottoman as zamān-i ghars (see Ar. ghars) (TDK) (ATI) (TRM) (Ot.)
dikme
Seedling, young plant (R); to plant, young plant (TDK) (Ot.)
dikmek
Plant, transplant, implant (R) (HAY) (TDK) (MED) (ARS) (LEH) (YAK) (KAM) (Ot.)
dikmelik
Nursery (KAM) (TDK) (Ot.)
dilul
Thinning out some seedlings to improve the growth of the remaining ones (Heb.)
dirakht
Tree (F.U.E.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
dirakht
Tree, plant, bush, shrub; beam; column (STG) (Pers.)
dirakhtistān
Planted with trees (STG) (Pers.)
dirakhtnāk
Full of trees, woody (STG) (Pers.)
dishun
Fertilizing by various means (Heb.)
divār
Wall that encloses a formal bāgh (F.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
dizh
Gallery, balcony; fortress (STG) (Pers.)
dīvānkhāna
Tribunal, office; audience hall (STG) (Pers.)
dolap
Waterwheel (R) (KAM) (KAR) (Ot.)
dukkān
Shop; workshop (STG) (Pers.)
dulb [shajarat al-]
Plane tree, sycamore (FN 1:168–70; Lane, 902; Wehr, 335) (Ar.)
durrāq
Peach (Ar.)

ḍayʿah (pl. ḍayāʿ)
Village, hamlet; country estate, rural property (Ar.)

einav
Grape (Heb.)
egoz ilsar
Hazelnut (Heb.)
ekim
Sowing (Ot.)
elma
Apple (Ottoman Turkish
enāristān
Pomegranate garden (MÜN) (Ot.)
enginar
Artichoke (Ot.)
et
Plowshare; shovel (Heb.)
etz
Tree, wood (Heb.)

faghistān
Idol temple; haram of a prince (STG) (Pers.)
falach
Peasant, farmer (Heb.)
fallāḥ
Ploughman, though generally applied to agricultural farmer in modern usage (Ar.)
faqqūs
A kind of large cucumber (Ibn Mammātī, 82; Wehr, 846) (Ar.)
farshūqīyah
A plant otherwise known in Greek as oskūlanus or uskūlanus, or also kandrūsākūs (FN 1:585–87) (Ar.)
farūṣāhı̄
A vegetable similar to leek that grows along the Euphrates in Mesopotamia (FN 1:581–83) (Syr.)
farʿ (pl. furūʿ)
Branches (Ar.)
favvāra
Jet d’eau, fountain, spring (STG) (Pers.)
fayjal
Rue (see also sadhāb) (Lane, 1337) (Ar.)
ferādīs-i cennet
Synonym of ferādīs: plural of firdevs; garden of paradise, heaven (R) (FED) (Ot.)
fidan çukurı
Sapling pit (MEN) (Ot.)
fidan dikilen yer
Sapling, young tree, plant bed (TSD) (Ot.)
fidanlık
Nursery (R) (TDK) (KAM) (MED) (VLD) (Ot.)
fide
Seedling (R) (TDK-2) (TYS) (KAM) (LEH) (MED) (TRK) (Ot.)
fidān
Sapling, young tree, plant, bush (R) (NA) (ARK) (MEN) (TDK) (TYS) (HAY) (MED) (LEH) (KAM) (Ot.)
filāḥah, falḥ
Agriculture, horticulture. According to Toufic Fahd, filāḥah in the earliest Arabic texts of this genre can also have, in additional to agriculture, the meaning of botany (Fahd, Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, 3:813) (Ar.)
firdaws
Garden, vineyard, paradise; fertile valley (STG) (Pers.)
firdevs (pl. ferādīs)
The garden of paradise, heaven (R); paradise, heaven, garden (OSM) (RIZ) (HAY); valley where every kind of plant is grown, vineyard, garden, highest heaven (MED) (FED) (CUD); heaven, garden (RTK); vegetable garden, garden (NAC); garden, paradise (Koran 18 Kehf 107, 23 Mü‘mimūn 11) (SKA) (Ot.)
fisṭoq
Pistachio (Heb.)
fiṣfiṣah
Lucerne, alfalfa (Ar.)
frawlah
Strawberry (Ar.)
fujl (pl. fujūl)
Radish, divided into Shāmı̄ (Levantine), mustaṭı̄l (elongated), and barīy (wild) (FN 1:552–55) (Ar.)
fustuq
Pistachio (FN 2:1181–82) (Ar.)
fuṭr
Fungus; mushrooms (Ar.)
fūdhanaj
Pennyroyal, Mentha pulegium (FN 2:771; Dozy, Supplément 2:288) (Ar.)

gababa
Dry pieces of straw remaining after collecting cut wheat (Heb.)
gadish
Pile of cut wheat (Heb.)
gadud
Small ridge or mound raised by the plow after opening the furrow (Heb.)
gan
A place to raise various trees, especially fruit trees (Heb.)
gan yarak
Vegetable garden (Heb.)
gan-eden
Garden of Eden (Heb.)
gana
A smaller version of the above, a vineyard or orchard (Heb.)
ganan
Craftsman who creates gardens; gardener (Heb.)
ganan
Gardener, expert in the care of trees and plants (Heb.)
ganit
Smaller version of the above, adjacent to a house (Heb.)
garmkhāna
Hothouse; subterranean dwelling for warmth; greenhouse (STG) (Pers.)
gars
Planting (R) (NA); planting, plant (OSM); planting tree (KAM) (Ot.)
gars-ı escār
Planting tree (OSM) (Ot.)
gawdāl
Low-lying ground (STG) (Pers.)
gaytān
Garden (EVL) (Ot.)
gelif
Watchman’s hut in vineyards or gardens (TRM) (Ot.)
gelincik
Poppy (Ot.)
gever
Small lateral channel for irrigation (R) (TRM) (Ot.)
gevermek
To let in, to insert (water) (R) (TRM) (Ot.)
gharaz
Panic grass, also known as thumām (Lane, 2246) (Ar.)
ghālālūṭā
Originally a plant native to Egypt that was transplanted to Mesopotamia, the leaves of which are similar to the atraj (citron tree), though a bit thinner (FN 1:527–28) (Syr.)
ghār [shajarat al-]
Bay laurel tree (Ar.)
gharāsah, gharas, yaghrisu
Planting, to plant (Ar.)
ghubar
Dust (Ar.)
ghubayrā’ [shajarat al-]
Rowan or mountain ash (Lane, 2224). The FN does not give any specific description other than that it is found in Mesopotamia (bābil), thrives in hot and arid regions, and originates in the Indian region of Mak[k]ī (FN 1:185–86). Given that the rowan or mountain ash is well-known for its intensely red fruits, one should hesitate to identify the tree in FN with the rowan tree of the same name (Ar.)
ghulām gardish
Room between two others in which it opens; loggia and gate of a building; wall between the women’s quarters and the audience hall (MUN) (Pers.)
gulnār
Pomegranate flower (see also Arabicized jullanār) (Pers.)
ghurfa
Parlor, upper apartment, room for taking meals; paradise, the seventh heaven (STG) (Pers.)
gidul
Growth; care and fostering of animals, children, and plants and meeting their developmental needs (Heb.)
gidum
Sever, chop (Heb.)
gizum
Cutting or pruning of dry or extraneous branches to give a plant or vine the desired form to augment its growth (Heb.)
g'mila
Ripening of fruit (Heb.)
g'mina
Pruning of trees (Heb.)
goruk
Garden, vineyard (VLD) (Ot.)
gul
Rose; flower (STG) (Pers.)
gul pīrāy
Gardener, horticulturist (STG) (Pers.)
guldasta
A handful of roses; minaret (STG) (Pers.)
gulgasht
Pleasant place for walking or recreation, especially blooming with roses and other flowers; evening walk (STG) (Pers.)
gulistān
Rose garden; flower garden; celebrated Persian book in prose and verse, by Shaykh Sa‛di (1210–1291/92) (STG) (Pers.)
gulistū
Flower garden (STG) (Pers.)
gulnāk
Rose garden; flowerbed (STG) (Pers.)
gulshan
Rose or flower garden; bed of roses or flowers; delightful spot; pleasure palace; gulshan-i quds the highest heaven; gulshan āray gardener, horticulturist; gulshan sarāy garden palace (STG) (Pers.)
gulshan farūz
Gardener (spec. who plants roses) (STG) (Pers.)
gulshan tarāz
Gardener, horticulturist (STG)
gulzār
Rose garden; flourishing and well populated town; blooming, flourishing (STG) (Pers.)
gunbad
Arch, vault, cupola, dome, tower (STG) (Pers.)
gübre
Fertilizer, dung, manure, droppings (R) (NA); fertilizer, dung, manure, droppings, chemical or natural fertilizer (TDK) (Ot.)
gül bahçesi
Rose garden (R) (NA) (TSD) (TRM) (Ot.)
gül-bağ
Rose garden (R) (OSM) (KUB) (Ot.)
gülbün
Rosebush (R) (OSM) (HAY) (OTS) (Ot.)
gülistan
Rose garden (R) (NA) (OSM); synonym of çiçeklik, gülşen (MEN) (KAM) (ARS) (KUB) (Ot.)
güllük
Rose garden, bed of roses, place full of roses (R) (TDK) (BAY) (HAY) (TRM) (ARK) (KUB) (Ot.)
gülşen ü gülzār
Rose garden (R) (OSM) (Ot.)

hadāik-i Hassa
Imperial gardens (R) (KUB) (NA); imperial gardens outside of the courts (TLG) (MED) (Ot.)
hadhartāyā
Plant that grows along the Jordan river (FN 1:538–41) (Nab. Syr.)
hadiqa
Enclosure planted with fruit and palm trees but without vineyards (Ar.)
hadīka (pl. hadāik, hadāyık)
Garden, park, orchard (R) (OSM) (KAM); garden full of trees, garden with water (MÜK) (CUD); garden with trees, synonym of ravza, firdevs, bağ bostan (LEH); garden, park, orchard enclosed with a wall (YTL); garden full of trees enclosed with a wall, garden with water (NAC); a garden full of trees and water (KUB); garden full of trees (RTK) (Ot.)
hadīka-i ferahfeza
Spacious, open garden (OSM) (Ot.)
hadīka-i hāssa
Imperial gardens (R) (KAM) (Ot.)
hadīkat
Garden and orchard; if it is not enclosed by a wall it cannot be called hadīka (AHT) (Ot.)
hadīqa (pl. hadāyiq)
Garden (STG) (Pers.)
hadīqa
Orchard; palm plantation; enclosed garden (STG) (Pers.)
hafracha
Bringing about budding or flowering; yielding (Heb.)
Hag Ha'asif (succot)
Harvest festival; tabernacles (Heb.)
Hag Ha'bicorim
Festival of First Fruits; Pentecost (Heb.)
hammām
Hot bath; Turkish bath (STG) (Pers.)
haram
Forbidden; haram khāna = haram sarā women’s apartments (STG) (Pers.)
haram
Ladies section or apartment (F.U.E.D) (Urdu)
harım
Vegetable and fruit garden, fence for a field or a garden (TDK); fence for a field or a garden (YÖR); garden or orchard or vegetable garden, fig garden, field accessible to water, valuable field near the village or town, garden fence (TRM); garden fence (YÖR) (ZAN) (Ot.)
harkava
Propagation (Heb.)
hars
Tilling, sowing, plowing (STG) (Pers.)
hasbahçe bostancıları
Members of the imperial guard (R); gardener-guards of the imperial gardens (OTL) (TDS) (Ot.)
hasbahçe ocağı
Janissary corps of the sultan’s private gardens (TDS) (Ot.)
hasbahçe
Private garden of the sultan (R) (NA) (ARS) (OTL) (TLG) (MED) (SAN); imperial gardens and orchards in a court (TEM) (TDS) (Ot.)
hashka'a
Irrigation (Heb.)
hashrasha
Rooting a plant (Heb.)
hasht bihisht
The eight paradises (STG) (Pers.)
havchala
Fruit that is almost ripe; accelerating the maturation of fruit by artificial means (Heb.)
hawm
Name of a tree resembling the tamarisk; name of a descendant of Faridum, a sacrifice offered to the fire, a burnt-offering (STG) (Pers.)
hawz̤
Large reservoir of water, basin of a fountain, pond, tank, vat, cistern; hawz̤-i kaws̱ar reservoir of nectar in paradise; hawz̤cha = hawz̤ak small reservoir, cistern; hawz̤khāna building containing basins of water (STG) (Pers.)
hawz̤-i jūshān
hawż reservoir of water + jūshān boiling (STG) (Pers.)
hayāt
Walls, inner court, yard, vestibule (STG) (Pers.)
hā‘ir, hayr (pl. huran, hiran)
Place enclosed for cattle raising, with a pocket of water; a large precinct within a royal garden, such as a zoological garden. In al-Andalus, a pavilion in a garden within the precincts of a large palace (Ar.)
hā’it
Vegetable or pleasure garden enclosed within solid walls (Ar.)
hāshīya
Margin, border; flowerbed, parterre; hāshīya-yi bāgh bandī = hāshīya bandī to create flowerbeds in a garden (STG) (Pers.)
hilyawn
Asparagus (Ar.)
hindubā’
Endive (FN 2:761–71 (Ar.)
hintayvası
Custard apple (Ot.)
hisār
Besieging; encompassing; fortified town, fort, castle; fence, enclosure; hisār-i barīn the highest heaven; hisār-i pīrūza sky (STG) (Pers.)
hisār
Fortification wall that encloses a qasr (F.D) (J.N) (Urdu)
hovara
Letting a field lay fallow (Heb.)
hujra
Chamber (STG) (Pers.)
hydroponika
Hydroponics; using water containing all essential salts instead of soil as a growth medium (Heb.)

ḥadd[ah], ḥiddah
Sharp (Ar.)
ḥaḍaḍ [shajarat al-]
A thorny tree that grows in desolate prairies (FN 2:1259–60) (Ar.)
ḥaḍı̄ḍ
A depressed piece of ground at the place where a mountain ends (Lane, 588) (Ar.)
ḥalḥal makthā
The Nabataean Syriac name for the Greek kākūlāmı̄nūsh (FN 1:591–93) (Syr.)
ḥamaḍı̄, ḥāmiḍ[ah], ḥumūḍah
Sour (Ar.)
ḥamḍ [shajarat al-]
A kind of plant in which there is saltiness; camels eat it as though it were fruit and after which they drink (Dīnawarī, 26; Lane, 644) (Ar.)
ḥaml
Fruit of a tree (see also thamarah) (Lane, 648) (Ar.)
ḥanẓal
Colocynth (Ar.)
ḥarīf[ah], ḥarāfah
Acidic (acidity); tart (Ar.)
ḥasbanā [shajarat al-]
A Mesopotamian tree, the fruit of which is similar to that of the bitter orange (nāranj) or citron (atraj) tree (FN 1:189–93) (Ar.)
ḥashı̄sh
Hemp (see also qunnab) (Ar.)
ḥatsı̄l
Aubergine, eggplant (Heb.)
ḥawar [shajarat al-]
Either a plane tree or white poplar (FN 2:1246–47; Lane, 666; Wehr, 247) (Ar.)
ḥinnā
Henna (FN 2:1265–66) (Ar.)
ḥinṭah
Wheat (see also qamḥ) (Ar.)
ḥirāthah, ḥaratha, yaḥrithu
Farming, to farm (Ar.)
ḥiṣrim
Unripe and sour grapes (Ibn Mammātī, 82; Wehr, 213) (Ar.)
ḥomets
Vinegar; also leavened food (Heb.)
ḥummāḍ
Sorrel (FN 1:619–20) (Ar.)
ḥummuṣ
Chickpeas (Ar.)

Ibrāhı̄m [shajarat al-]
According to FN, this is a specific term used by the Nabateans and the Canaanites [sic] to refer to a blessed tree similar to the ghubayrā’ that grows in Mesopotamia in arid climates, has yellow and perfumed flowers, and grows very tall, the latter of which being the reason for the application of the prophetic-biblical namesake (FN 1:186–91) (Ar.)
idit
Best soil (Heb.)
idur
Hoeing, tilling (Heb.)
igum
Impounding of water to create a lake (Heb.)
i‛imārat
Cultivating, rendering habitable a building, edifice, structure; palace; sacred fabric (STG) (Pers.)
i‛imarat-i sardar
‛imarat building + sardar lintel of a door (STG) (Pers.)
ijāṣ [shajarat al-]
Plum tree (FN 2:1189–90, 1198) (Ar.)
ikar
Farmer (Heb.)
ilan
Tree (Heb.)
incir
Fig (Ot.)
iqshmūyā
Leafless Mesopotamian plant (FN 1:626–28) (Syr.)
iqṭāʿ
Land tenure (Ar.)
İrem
The mystical gardens said to have been devised by Shaddad bin Ad in emulation of the garden of Paradise (R) (NA); as bağ-ı İrem (OSS) (Ot.)
isḥārah (pl. siḥār)
A type of herb upon which grows māl (Dīnawarī, 30) (Ar.)
iskān
Settlement and sedentarization (Ar.)
ispargham
Name of an odoriferous herb; any green herb; verdure; any fragrant herb (STG) (Pers.)
isparlūs
Palace (STG) (Pers.)
issuv
Weeding by hand (Heb.)
istabl
Stable (Arabic, from Greek στάβλιον) (STG) (Pers.)
istakhr
Lake, pool, ditch; ancient Persepolis (STG) (Pers.)
ista’ṣala yasta’ṣilu, isti’ṣāl
To uproot, to deracinate, to weed (Ar.)
istinbāṭ, istanbaṭa yastanbiṭu
To draw water (Ar.)
ithr
Litter or organic remnant/detritus (see also bāq) (Ibn Mammātı̄, 201) (Ar.)
iṭlāʿ al-mā’
Extraction of water (Ar.)
ivān
In a garden, a chamber/pavilion where important person sits and meets with the audience. It is usually located at a key focal point on the site affording a maximum view from the sitting area. These pavilions were most often located at the intersection of khyabans, at the termination of a vista or on one or either side of a pond hauz (F.D P.N) (Urdu)
ivan chihl sutun
Forty-pillared hall. During the Shah Jahan period, ivan chihl sutun were constructed and were known as Daulat Khāna Khās-o Am. These forty-pillared halls, therefore exist at Lahore, Shahjahanabad, and Agra (S.N.) (Urdu)
izuk
Tilling the soil in preparation for planting (Heb.)

jadval
Rivulet; ruled line, marginal line; column, table of contents (of a book); dried up river, brook (STG) (Pers.)
jadvalbandī
To lay down the grid of irrigation channels (Pers.)
ja‛far
Little stream; river; name of an imām (STG) (Pers.)
jafnah (pl. jafnāt)
A small well; a wooden bowl (Ar.)
jaft
Trellis; roof of a house (STG) (Pers.)
jahān
The world, universe (STG) (Pers.)
jahān ārāy
Adorning the world (STG) (Pers.)
jahān namā
jahān world + namā showing (Pers.)
janabah
Perennial plant (generic) (Ar.)
jangal
(Sanskrit janagala) wood, forest, thicket; country overgrown with wood, reeds, or long grass; jungle (STG) (Pers.)
janna (pl. jnān)
Place planted with fruit and palm trees. In classical Arabic, this garden also contains vineyards. In Marrakech and Fez, orchard or kitchen garden outside the city walls or in the Medina (Ar.)
janna (pl. jinan, jannat)
In the Quran, shady and densely planted paradises promised to believers (Ar.)
jannat
Garden, set with trees; grove of palm trees; paradise; heaven (STG) (Pers.)
jannat
Paradise, heaven (F.U.E.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
jar
Crack, cleft, fissure, particularly in the ground; ditch, trench, cracked ground (STG) (Pers.)
jard
Royal throne (STG) (Pers.)
jarı̄d
Dried and barren palm branch (Ar.)
jarjīr
Watercress (FN 2:779–81; Wehr, 141) (Ar.)
jawla gāh
A field of jawla, a kind of grass (STG) (Pers.)
jawla zār
Prairie (Pers.)
jawsa
Balcony; kiosk; villa (STG) (Pers.)
jawsaq
Lofty building, palace; villa, kiosk (STG) (Pers.)
jawz
Walnut (FN 2:1173–77) (Ar.)
jawz al-hindī
Coconut (FN 2:1177) (Ar.)
jawz al-ṭı̄b
Nutmeg (Ar.)
jazar bustānı̄
A kind of root vegetable, presumably carrot, divided into bustānı̄ (garden variety) and barrīy (wild) (FN 1:557–59) (Ar.)
jālīz
Herbage, flowers and fruits (STG) (Pers.)
jāmūs
Water buffalo (Ar.)
jān-i zamīn
Herbage, flowers, and fruits (STG)
jharoka
Bay window where an emperor would sit to present himself to his audience. It is generally located above the floor level where the emperor used to sit but in case of residential buildings these are designed at the first floor level to overlook the view of the street and landscape beyond. The jharoka occupied a central position both in the diwan-e-khas-o-aam (hall of lords and the commons). These jharoka were decorated with floral patterns either painted on plaster or made in pietra dura work. It generally protruded from the main structure, so a person sitting in a jharoka was visible from three different sides. The emperor's seat in Hall of Public and Private audience were usually written as Jharoka-e Darshan (F.U.E.D) (B.S) (Urdu)
jins (pl. ajnā)
Sex, genus, type (Ar.)
jirz
Wall (Pers.)
jisr
Bridge (STG) (Pers.)
jizār
Time of the cutting off of the fruit of the palm tree (Lane, 419) (Ar.)
joy
Canal, stream of water (J.N) (Urdu)
julaw-khān
Façade of a house (STG) (Pers.)
julaw-khānā
Entrance forecourt, whether for a palace, tomb, or pleasure garden; antechamber, porch (F.D S.N) (Urdu)
jullanār
Pomegranate blossom (see original Per. gulnār) (Ar.)
julnasrı̄n
Flower similar to both jasmine and jonquil but with larger flowers (FN 1:136–37); most likely eglantine rose (sweet-brier) (Ar.)
jummayz [shajarat al-]
Sycamore fig-tree (FN 2:1205–6; Lane, 454; Wehr, 159) (Ar.)
jummār
Palm pith, palm core (Ibn Mammātī, 82; Lane, 454; Wehr, 159) (Ar.)
junūb
South; the south wind (Ar.)
jūbı̄thā kuwı̄
The Syriac term used for khandarūs (Gr. candarus = La. titricum romanum) (FN 1:516–17) (Syr.)
jūy
Running stream, rivulet; canal or gutter cut for the purpose of irrigation (STG) (Pers.)
jūybār
Great river formed by the confluence of many smaller streams; riverbank; place abounding in streams (STG) (Pers.)

kabūtar khāna
Pigeon house (STG) (Pers.)
kadim
A hot eastern wind that scorches the wheat (Gen. 41:6) (Heb.)
kafnit
Wild palm; wild dates (Heb.)
kakma aşı
Grafting, bud (to be placed into the stock) (TDK-2) (Ot.)
kam’ah
Truffle (FN 1:599–602) (Ar.)
kan
Tree; place full of trees (STG) (Pers.)
kana
Understock; plant; shoot (Heb.)
kapama bahçe
Garden planted with only one kind of tree (TRM) (Ot.)
kar
Meadow; grassland (Heb.)
karafs
Celery (FN 1:781–85; Lane, 2607) (Ar.)
kardom
Iron tool, a kind of pickaxe for digging (Heb.)
karık
Furrow (R) (TDK) (TRM) (KUB) (TEM) (Ot.)
karka betula
Name for land that has never been worked (Heb.)
karm, kurūm
Grapevine (Ar.)
karmel
Garden; fruitful field; Mount Carmel (Heb.)
karpuz
Watermelon (Ot.)
karrāth
Leek (FN 1:562; Wehr, 959) (Ar.)
kart
Piece of tilled ground; small raised part of ground dividing the plots in a garden and made to hold irrigation water (STG); piece of cultivated land, each portion of a field or garden (MUN) (Pers.)
karta
Piece of tilled ground (STG) (Pers.)
karyās
Privy on the roof of a house having communication with a subterranean passage (STG) (Pers.)
katif
Harvest of fruit from a tree (Heb.)
kattān
Flax (FN 1:522–24) (Ar.)
kav
Dry weight used during the period of the Mishna and the Talmud, approximately 2.2 liters (Heb.)
kav
Taut thread used for measuring (Ezek. 2:47) (Heb.)
kava
Collected water in a ritual bath (Heb.)
kaveret
Beehive (Heb.)
kavot
Vessel used for pickling fruit (from Greek) (Heb.)
kavran
Beekeeper (Heb.)
kavun
Melon (Ot.)
kawāzā fīnā
Plant that grows close to the shore and the sea (FN 1:624–25) (Syr.)
kayısı
Apricots (Ar.)
kājistān
Land full of pine trees; kāj wild pine tree + istān place (STG) (Pers.)
kāla
Ground prepared for sowing (STG) (Pers.)
kākh
Palace, villa, summer dwelling; apartment at the top of the house open to front; upper story; tower, gallery, balcony, battlements, or any similar erection for the benefit of air or a prospect (STG) (Pers.)
kārīz
Subterranean canal; ditch dug around a field to convey water (STG) (Pers.)
kāza
House; hut erected in the corner of a field or melon ground; bedchamber built of wood and supported by columns; hunter’s hiding place; canopy; shady place (STG) (Pers.)
kenevir
Cannabis (Ot.)
kerem
Vineyard (Heb.)
kerti
Water notch in gardens or fields (TRM) (Ot.)
kfar
Village, hamlet; countryside (Heb.)
kfari
Rural; rustic (Heb.)
kış bahçesi
Winter garden (R) (ARS) (TRM) (Ot.)
kida
Perfume mentioned in the Bible to prepare the anointing oil (Exod. 30:23–24) (Heb.)
kikar
Square; plaza; piazza (Heb.)
kikar
Plain, valley (Heb.)
kilshon
Agricultural tool with three tines (Heb.)
kisuakh
Cut off; mown (Heb.)
kishtzār
Field sown and beginning to look green (STG) (Pers.)
kiton
Pump or installation for pumping water (from Greek) (Heb.)
kiyarī
Flowerbed (F.U.E.D) (B.K) (Urdu)
kmira
Covering fruit with earth to ripen them (Heb.)
knima
Vermin; insect; pest (Heb.)
korem
Vineyard owner/grower (Heb.)
kormut
Grapevine cultivation (Heb.)
kotzer
Farmer cutting ripe wheat (Heb.)
kotzetz
Cuts, clips (Heb.)
köşk
Villa, summer house; pavilion (R); kiosk (NA) (Ot.)
ktaf
Sap from a perfume tree (Heb.)
ktoret
Burning of incense to create a pleasant fragrance (Deut. 10:33) (Heb.)
kulāhfarangī
Pavilion (STG) (Pers.)
kummathrā
Pear (FN 2:1206–13) (Ar.)
kundur
Frankincense (FN 2:1257–59) (Ar.)
kurunb
Cabbage (Ar.)
kuzbarah
Coriander (Ar.)
kūcha bāgh
Street leading to gardens; kūcha narrow street; lane, slum, row, passage; street, square, marketplace (Pers.)
kūsā
zucchini (Ar.)
kūshk
Palace, villa; castle, citadel (STG) (Pers.)

khalvat khāna
Private chamber, bedroom (F.U.E.D) (B.N) (Urdu)
khalvat khāna
Women’s apartment; any other private apartment (STG) (Pers.)
khalvat sarā
Women’s apartment; place for private prayer (STG) (Pers.)
khamr
Wine (Ar.)
khamr
Wine (Ar.)
khandarūs
The Arabic rendering of the Greek candarus (La. titricum romanum) (Paavilainen, Med. Pharmacotherapy, 655) (Ar.)
khandaq[ah]
Trench, ditch (Ar.)
kharand
Low garden wall; parapet of a gallery (STG) (Pers.)
kharbusta
Prominent part of a roof; eaves (STG) (Pers.)
khardal
Mustard seed (FN 2:795–96) (Ar.)
kharīʿ
Applied to anything soft that easily breaks (Lane, 725) (Ar.)
khargāh
Tent, pavilion, tabernacle; wide and spacious residence; cottage or moveable Turkoman hut or tent, formed by flexible poles, and covered with felt-cloth; sky (STG) (Pers.)
kharmanjī
Tobacco blender (Ot.)
kharnūb, also khurnūb or kharrūb [shajarat al-]
Carob, whereby the tree is divided into two types: wild (barrīy) and Levantine (shāmı̄) (FN 1:184-85); according to Lane, in Iraq the tree is referred to as shajarat al-qiththā al-shāmı̄, not to be confused with Armenian cucumber (qiththā’) (Lane, 717) (Ar.)
kharpushta
Anything elevated in the center and sloping downward at each end; tent; the ninth heaven (STG) (Pers.)
khartshūf
Artichoke (Ar.)
kharū
Feces (Ar.)
kharʿab[ah], kharʿūb[ah]
Said of a branch or twig not yet a year old; fresh, tender, soft (Lane, 725) (Ar.)
khaṣṣ
Lettuce (FN 1:615–19) (Ar.)
khashkhāsh
Poppy (FN 1:531–38) (Ar.)
khavarnaq
Palace built by Nu’mān bin Munzir for king Bahram in Babylonia and alluded to often to imply a magnificent edifice (STG) (Pers.)
khayma
Tent, tabernacle, circular pavilion; khayma-yi arzaq the sky; khayma gāh a camp (STG) (Pers.)
khānī
Fountain, pure water (STG) (Pers.)
khāna
House, dwelling, habitation; tent, pavilion; āyina khāna house or apartment adorned with mirrors (STG) (Pers.)
khāna
House, dwelling (F.U.E.D) (J.N) (Urdu)
khāna/paein bāgh
Literally, house garden. These were built in large havelis and so were for the exclusive use of ladies. This term was used for the first time in the palace garden of Shahjahanabad where such courtyard gardens were rebuilt for the exclusive use of harem (C.C) (S.N) (Urdu)
khilāf [shajarat al-]
A tree known for its bitterness similar to the willow (see ṣafṣāf; salix genus) (FN 1:170–72; Lane, 797). Lane cites that in Zabı̄dı̄’s Tāj al-ʿarūs the Arabs call the khilāf tree by the name sawjar or sawḥar (Ar.)
khirwaʿ [shajarat al-]
Castor-oil plant (FN 1:152–54) (Ar.)
khiṭmī [shajarat al-]
Marsh mallow (FN 1:155–59) (Ar.)
khiyābān
Parterre, flowerbed; avenue (STG) (Pers.)
khiyār
Cucumber (Ibn Mammātī 86), (Ar.)
Khizr
Prophet who discovered and drank of the water of life and became immortal. He figures in Oriental tradition as a vizir of Iskandar, and also as Elias and St. George, on the supposition that the same soul animated them by transmigration. Khizr has spring in his wake, said because the ground on which he places his foot is supposed to be immediately covered with green (STG) (Pers.)
khı̄rı̄
Gillyflower (FN 1:126–29) (Ar.)
khīsh
Coarse linen cloth (STG) (Pers.)
khīshkhāna
A kind of tent constructed with reeds or linen cloth; tent with tatties to keep out the heat (STG) (Pers.)
khīyābān bandī
Laying out avenues (Ain) (Urdu)
khīyābān bandī
Designing the avenues in a garden or city (STG) (Pers.)
khokh
Peach (FN 2:1187–89) (Ar.)
khubbāzī
The mallow family of flowering plants (see also khiṭmī) (Ar.)
khudā
God, master, owner (STG) (Pers.)
Khura, khurra, khura band
Divine illumination; a district of the Persian empire (STG) (Pers.)
khushūdan
To prune a tree (STG) (Pers.)
khuzām, khuzāmā
Lavender (FN 1:139–41) (Ar.)
khvab gah
Sleeping chamber, a sleeping apartment (F.U.E.D) (Urdu)
khyabān
Terraces (tabqas) were divided into chahārbāghs formed by two khyabāns (avenues) intersecting at right angles. These avenues were paved with brick on edge in a variety of geometrical motifs. These motifs were repeated to add to the harmony and balance of the garden design (F.D) (M.G) (Urdu)

lablāb (Ar.)
English ivy; lablab, hyacinth bean (Wehr, 1005) (Ar.)
lala zār
Tulip garden. The Kashmir valley was described as a lalazārduring spring because of its abundant tulips (F.D) (Ba-Na) (Urdu)
lale
Tulip (R) (NA) (TDK-2) (MED) (OSM) (HAY) (LEH) (BAY) (Ot.)
lalelik
Tulip bed, vase for tulips (TEM) (Ot.)
laqqaḥ, yulaqqiḥu
To fertilize, pollinate (Ar.)
lawz[ah]
Almond (FN 2:1178–79) (Ar.)
lālezar
Tulip garden, tulip bed (R) (NA) (TDK) (MED) (OSM) (TEM) (FED) (Ot.)
less
Loess (soil) (Heb.)
liviev
To bloom; blossom; sprout (Heb.)
lı̄nūfar
Water lilies (FN 1:131–33) (Ar.)
lı̄ṭah, lı̄ṭ
Bark, husk (Ar.)
lulav
Twig, palm branch; one of the biblical four species of plants used on the Feast of Tabernacles (Heb.)
lūbīyā
Green beans (Ar.)
lūfā
A plant with a big white base that grows primarily wild in Mesopotamia (FN 1:587–88) (Syr.)
lūla
Canal, tube, siphon (STG) (Pers.)

maavek
Blower for disinfection power (Heb.)
machresha
Plow (Heb.)
machtab
Modern name for a hand sickle (Heb.)
madrega
Agricultural terrace (Heb.)
magal
Sickle; tool with a serrated blade used to cut herbs and corn (Heb.)
magal yad
Pruning sickle, see machtab (Heb.)
magov
Rake; agricultural implement with prongs used to rake corn (Heb.)
magrefa
Rake, for collecting scattered objects to level the soil (Heb.)
magrofit
Portion of the plow that turns up the soil (Heb.)
mahtābī
Lit by the moon; balcony or terrace (for enjoying the moonlight). (STG) (Pers.)
makosh
Modern name for a hoe, one side of the head of which is pointed and the other straight, used to dig stony soils. In antiquity, a pickaxe used to uproot weeds (Heb.)
malgez
Fork; trident (Heb.)
mangul
Knee-shaped tube. (Pers.)
manzil (pl. manazil) gāh
Noun of place and time from the root n-z-l, which expresses the idea of halting, a temporary stay, a stage in a journey. In the terminology of itineraries given by Arab authors, manzil corresponds to the mansio of Latin texts: a halting or resting place. In Mughal architecture, manazil gahis the type of garden where emperors often stopped for a short period of time during their journey. The Wah Gardens provide an example. Abode. (F.D) (A.N) (Urdu)
maraḍ, amrāḍ
Illness, sickness (see also ʿillah) (Ar.)
margh
Name of a grass of which animals are exceedingly fond; garden, particularly one abounding in plants. (STG) (Pers.)
marghzār
Pasture; meadow. It is derived from margh, a kind of grass. (F.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
marghzār
Place abounding with margh; verdant lawn, mead, meadow. (STG) (Pers.)
markadqā
A plant particular to Nineveh (FN 1:637–38) (Syr.)
marsı̄n [shajarat al-]
Myrtle tree (Ibn Mammātı̄, 86) (Ar.)
masdeda
Iron frame with numerous teeth on the bottom side used after plowing to level the ground and break up clumps of soil (Heb.)
masor
Saw (Heb.)
mawistān
Vineyard. (Pers.)
mawz
Banana (Ar.)
maydān
Open field without buildings, an extensive plain; race ground or any place for exercises or walking; arena, parade ground; battlefield; maydān gāh a public square; maydān-i chawgān polo ground; maydān-i asb davānī horse riding ground. (Pers.)
mazlef
Gardener’s bucket with perforated funnel for irrigation (Heb.)
mazmera
Modern name for a two-part pruning shears. In antiquity, a small non-serrated sickle (Heb.)
ma'ader
Hoe (Heb.)
maʿdan (pl. maʿādin)
Mineral (Ar.)
mā’
Water. The following are common adjectives to describe bodies of water: adhibah, sweet; murrah, bitter; māliḥah, salty; radī’ah, stagnant; ʿaṣifah, turbulent; kibrītīyah, sulphuric; raṣāṣīyah, leaden (Ar.)
mādī
Streams in Isfahan. (Pers.)
mercimek
Lentils (Ot.)
mesire
Synonym of mesiregah; promenade, place of excursion. (R) (NA) (Ot.)
mey tehom
Groundwater (Heb.)
meyve bahçesi
Orchard, fruit garden. (NA) (TRM) (Ot.)
migzazalim
Sheep-wool shears (Heb.)
mimār
Architect, builder. (F.U.E.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
ming
Water pipe, conduit. (STG) (Pers.)
mishmesh
Apricots (Heb.)
mishmish, mushmush
Apricots (FN 2:1184–86) (Ar.)
mı̄nānā abnā
Mesopotamian aquatic plant (FN 1:622–23) (Syr.)
morag
Threshing implement (Heb.)
mudām
Wine (Ar.)
mulūkhiyā
Jew’s mallow (FN 2:1274) (Ar.)
mumallaḥ[ah], māliḥ[ah], mulūḥah
Salty (Ar.)
munazzah, muntanazaha
Open garden space without any enclosure with large planted avenues, generally close to a natural waterway. In classical Arabic, promenades and pleasurable places for gatherings. (Ar.)
munya
Enclosed agricultural domain in al-Andalus belonging to a ruler or high-ranking court dignitary used for aesthetic, economic, and even experimental cultivation. In al-Andalus, called almunya after the fourteenth century. (Ar.)
muqfir[ah]
Barren, desolate (Ar.)
murr [shajarat al-]
Myrrh tree (FN 2:1256–57) (Ar.)
murr[ah], marārah
Bitter (bitterness) (Ar.)
mustanqaʿ
Swamp, bog (Ar.)
muṣṭakā, maṣṭakah
Mastic (Ar.)

nabāṭ, manbiṭ (pl. manābiṭ)
Plants (Ar.)
nabq, also nibq, nabaq, and nabiq
Christ’s Thorn; lotus fruit; lotus blossom (FN 2:1194–98; Lane; Wehr, 1103) (Ar.)
nafal
Clover (see also barsı̄m) (Ar.)
nahr
Stream, canal, watercourse. It is one of the main features particularly in a princely Mughal garden. (F.U.E.D) (Tadhkira Qasā’id) (Urdu)
nahr
Stream, river. (STG) (Pers.)
nakhchīr
Hunting; chase; prey, game, wild beast; place of hunters. (STG) (Pers.)
nakhjīrgāh
Chase, hunting ground. (STG) (Pers.)
nakhlah
Palm tree (FN 2:1339–1453) (Ar.)
nakhlband
Maker of artificial flowers; gardener; one who moulds figures of trees or fruits in wax. (STG) (Pers.)
nakhlistān
Palm plantation. (STG) (Pers.)
namakdān
Salt cellar. (STG) (Pers.)
naqāra khāna
Porch where the royal drum kettles are beaten at stated intervals. (STG) (Pers.)
nard
One of the perfumes mentioned in the Bible (Nardostachys jatamansi) (Heb.)
nasrīn
Jonquil (FN 1:136–37) (Ar.)
nasheman
Pavilion, residence, resting place. (F.D) (B.S) (Urdu)
nawʿ (anwāʿ)
Type, variant (see also Ot. and Per. nevʿ, envāʿ) (Ar.)
nazargah
Place for sightseeing. (Ot.)
nazır
Person who watches (R); gardener, guard of garden and vineyard. (VLD) (Ot.)
naʿnaʿ
Mint (FN 2:771–75) (Ar.)
nār
Pomegranate (Per./Ot.)
nāranj [shajarat al-]
Bitter orange (FN 1:177–78; Wehr, 1099) (Ar.)
nārinjistān
Orangery; conservatory. (STG) (Pers.)
nātır (natr)
Synonym of natur; watchman of a garden or vineyard (R) (FED); vineyard guard, gardener. (HAY) (MÜN) (Ot.)
nāūra
Synonym of naure; waterwheel, machine for raising water for irrigation. (R) (RTK) (MÜK) (CUD) (NAC) (Ot.)
nebatat bahçesi
Botanical garden. (R) (HAY) (MED) (KUB) (Ot.)
neger
Runoff (water) (Heb.)
neshila, neshira
Shedding, sloughing (Heb.)
nesteren-zar
Rose garden. (KUB) (Ot.)
netia'a
Planting (Heb.)
netzer
Stem, shoot (Heb.)
neve-midbar
Oasis (Heb.)
nevet
Sprout (Heb.)
nevila
Withering, wilting (Heb.)
nevāīr
Waterwheels for irrigation. (FED) (Ot.)
nevātīr
Guards of a vegetable garden. (FED) (OSM) (Ot.)
nikush
Weeding with a tool (Heb.)
nir
Plowed field (Heb.)
nirjis
Narcissus (FN 1:133–35; Ibn Mammātı̄, 86) (Ar.)
nitzan
Bud (Heb.)
noy
Beauty (Heb.)

ol
Yoke (Heb.)
omer
Small sheaf (Heb.)
ona
Season (Heb.)
orman
Forest (Ot.)

pal
Field with a raised border. (STG) (Pers.)
pamuk
Cotton (Ot.)
panjar
Beet, sugar beet (see also Ar. bancar) (Ot.)
parag
Poppy (Heb.)
parīz
Herb growing on the banks of rivers. (STG) (Pers.)
parag
Poppy (Heb.)
parchīn
Briar hedge; thorn placed on a wall as a fence; shed; hovel constructed of sticks, leaves, etc. (STG) (Pers.)
pardīs
Paradise (neologism from English). (Pers.)
parda
Curtain; partition between two rooms; fence or wall dividing fields; parda sarā pavilion. (STG) (Pers.)
pardes
Orchard (Heb.)
parkhaw-kardan
Pruning of trees. (STG) (Pers.)
parpar
Butterfly (Heb.)
parvār
Summer house latticed on all sides to admit air; turret open on all sides; planks for roofing a house. (STG) (Pers.)
pasāk
Garland of flowers. (STG) (Pers.)
pasānidan
To irrigate. (STG) (Pers.)
patlıcan
Aubergine, eggplant (Ot.)
payvand
To graft. (STG) (Pers.)
pād
Guardian; throne; power; great. (STG) (Pers.)
pādarbān
Gatehouse. (Pers.)
pādikāna
High roof; window. (STG) (Pers.)
pādshāh
Emperor, sovereign, monarch, king. (STG) (Pers.)
pālīz
Kitchen garden; seed field; melon ground. (STG) (Pers.)
pālīzbān
Gardener. (STG) (Pers.)
pālakāna
High roof, window. (STG) (Pers.)
pālkāna
High roof, window. (STG) (Pers.)
pāshuya
Water channel around a basin. (MUN) (Pers.)
pāyāb
Well, any shallow stone reservoir of water easy of access; bottom of a pond or a body of water. (STG) (Pers.)
peqa'at
Bulb (Heb.)
perach
Flower (Heb.)
pered
Mule (Heb.)
pereg
Poppy, poppy seed (Heb.)
peri
Fruit (Heb.)
pevand kāri
Grafting. (S.B) (Urdu)
pichkam
Court, audience hall; house whose sides are latticed; summer house. (STG) (Pers.)
pitriyah
Mushroom (Heb.)
pīrāstan
To prune; to adorn, decorate, embellish (especially by cutting, clipping, or taking away); bustān pīrā bāgh pīrā gardener. (STG) (Pers.)
pīshtāq
Palace gate. (Pers.)
poreh
Fertile, productive (Heb.)
pore'ach
Flowering (Heb.)
pul
Bridge. (STG) (Pers.)
pulvan
Raised path or balk round a field. (STG) (Pers.)

qalamistān
Land in which qalamah, branches cut from plants to be replanted, are laid on the ground (Pers.)
qalīyūṭı̄
A type of leek (FN 1:564) (Ar.)
qamḥ
Wheat (see also ḥinṭah) (Ar.)
qanāt
Irrigation; subterranean canal (STG) (Pers.)
qanṭarah, qanātir
Arched bridge, stone bridge; vault, arch, archway; archway, arcade; aches, aqueduct, viaduct (Lane, 2568; Wehr, 927) (Ar.)
qarāḥ
Clear water (see also rawā’) (Ar.)
qarāṣiyā, also qarāsiyā
Prunes (FN 2:1199–1200; Wehr, 882) (Ar.)
qarʿ
Gourd, pumpkin (Wehr, 887) (Ar.); qarʿ baladı̄ and qarʿ ʿaslı̄, common yellow gourd (Ar.); qarʿ ẓurūf, bottle gourd, calabash (Eg. Ar.); qarʿ kūsı̄, zucchini (Syr. Ar.)
qasr
Castle, citadel, palace, villa, any imposing building or structure. (STG) (Pers.)
qaṣı̄f
Weak, fragile, or sappy plant (see also rayyān) (Lane, Suppl., 2989) (Ar.)
qat
Khat (Catha edulis); a leafy plant that is consumed primarily in Yemen (Ar.)
qaṭā
Sand grouse (Ar.)
qaṭı̄ʿah
A portion of land held in fee (Lane, Suppl., 2990) (Ar.)
qaṭṭānī
Any type of legume, including wheat, barley, raisin, or date (Ibn Mammātī, 201) (Ar.)
qayqab
Maple (FN 2:1243; Wehr, 942) (Ar.)
qārı̄thā [shajarat al-]
A tree similar to the sumac, but which is bigger and more widespread in Mesopotamia, the leaves of which also resembling those of the olive tree (FN 2:1263) (Ar.)
qinū, aqnā’
Bunch of dates (Ar.)
qirmiz [shajarat al-]
A tree alien to Mesopotamia (bābil) that originates in Greece and the leaves of which resemble that of the leaves of the ballūṭ tree (either oak, common ash, or walnut) (FN 1:174–76; Lane, 249); not to be confused with qirmiz (kermes), the coccus ilicis insect, from which crimson dye is made (Ar.)
qirṭ
A type of leek (see also karrāth) (Ibn Mammātī, 201) (Ar.)
qiththā’
Armenian cucumber (Ar.)
qunnab, also qinnab and qinnabī
Hemp (see also ḥashīsh) (Ar.)
qunnabīṭ
Cauliflower (Ar.)
qurunful
Clove (Ar.)
qusṭ [shajarat al-]
Non-fruit-producing tree known for its perfume, the bark of which can be used as incense (FN 2:1251; Lane, 2523) (Ar.)

rakbuvit
Organic plant material that has disintegrated into the soil (Heb.)
ravāq
A house resembling a tent being supported on one pillar; a curtain stretched like a canopy before a tent or the door of a house; portico; porch; gallery in front of a house; a lofty building resting on columns. (STG) (Pers.)
ravz, ravza (pl. riyāz)
Garden, meadow, oasis in a desert (R) (SÜL) (FED); garden (YED) garden, meadow (YUS); garden, meadow, with water and flowers, heaven (SUK); garden, the place of prophet Muhammed’s tomb (Ravza-i Mutahhara) (MEV) (OSM) (MÜK) (CUD) (LEH) (RTK) (NAC); garden, meadow, with water and lawn, heaven. (KUB) (Ot.)
rawda, rawd
Park, cemetery. (Ar.)
rawza
Kitchen or flower garden. (STG) (Pers.)
rayāḥı̄n
Aromatic plants (FN 1:240) (Ar.)
rayḥān
Basil (see also sīsanbar) (Ibn Mammātı̄, 86; Lane, 1181) (Ar.)
rayyā
A sweet odor (Lane, 1196) (Ar.)
rayyān (also riwā’)
Well irrigated; succulent, juicy, sappy (Lane 1196; Wehr 429) (Ar.)
rāgh
Lower part of a mountain, mountain slope; pleasant verdant meadow; villa, summer house; bāgh va rāgh gardens and villas. (STG) (Pers.)
rāḥ
Wine (Ar.)
rāsin
A plant resembling ginger (Lane, 1086), though this association is not in any way indicated by Ibn Waḥshīyah (FN 1:560–62) (Ar.)
regev
Clod of soil (Heb.)
revia'a
Rainy season (from Arabic) (Heb.)
ridud
Flattening and pressing down soil (Heb.)
riyād
Garden enclosed within the high walls of a residence. In Marrakech and Fez there are three main types according to the organization of the enclosure, the location of the residential building and the form of the interior garden. In Morocco, the grass-covered enclosure of a Muslim cemetery, evocative of paradise. (Ar.)
rībās
Rhubarb (Ar.)
rochev
Branch of a superior fruit tree used in propagation (Heb.)
roglit
Grapevine that trails along the ground (Heb.)
rumān
Pomegranate (Ar.)

sabakh
Dung, manure; fertilizer (Ar.)
sabaṭ
The term applied to the fresh sort of the plant known as the ḥalı̄y, which grows in the sands; it produces no flowers or thorns, its leaves being thin and similar to that of the leek (see karrāth); term used to designate whatever has dried and turned white (Dīnawarī, 27; Lane, 1295) (Ar.)
sabikhah
As applied to arable land (see arḍ), a tract of land that exudes water and produces salt; salt land or earth (Lane, 1292) (Ar.)
sabīkh
cotton, wool; soft hair (Lane I, 1292) (Ar.)
sabsab (pl. sabāsib)
Desert wasteland (Wehr, 458); also a species of tree from which Arabian bows are made (Dīnawarī, 27) (Ar.)
sabza maydān
The sky. (STG) (Pers.)
sabzazār
Verdant meadow. (Pers.)
sabzjāy
Green place. (Pers.)
sadeh
Area of land intended for cultivation (Heb.)
sadeh beit shalchin
Field irrigated by artificial means (Heb.)
sadhāb
Rue (see also fayjal) (FN 1:37, 2:786–94; Dı̄nawarı̄, 33; Lane, 1337) (Ar.)
sadma
Field of wheat or a vineyard (Heb.)
safarjal
Quince (FN 2:1214–19; Dīnawarī, 39; Lane, 1372) (Ar.)
safsal
Bench (Heb.)
sajam
A tree with broad leaves (Dīnawarī, 29) (Ar.)
sajā
A plant, the leaves of which are used when planting radish; the leaves are also used to treat indigestion (Dīnawarī, 28) (Ar.)
sakab [shajarat al-]
A sweet smelling tree, the scent of which is similar to the perfume khaluq, and which is planted in valleys; anemone (Dīnawarī, 40; Lane, 1388; Wehr, 486) (Ar.)
sakhbar [shajarat al-]
A species of panic grass (gharaz) and its growth is like that of the sweet rush called idhkhar (Dīnawarī, 31; Lane, 1323) (Ar.)
sakhā’ah
An herb that grows on a singular stalk, similar to the spikenard, and its seeds are like that of bean clover (Dīnawarī, 31) (Ar.)
sakkū
Sofa, bench, garden seat. (STG) (Pers.)
sal
Basket (Heb.)
salab [shajarat al-]
A type of tall tree, which is taken and laid beneath hot ashes, which is taken and laid beneath hot ashes (yumallu) and is then split into white strips similar to palm fibers (layf) out of which then rope is fashioned (Dīnawarī, 42; Lane, 1399) (Ar.)
salaq
A smooth, even tract of good soil (Lane, 1410) (Ar.)
salisah
A certain herb bearing a resemblance to the plant known as naṣı̄y, except that it has seeds similar to that of sult (Dı̄nawarı̄, 43; Lane, 1405) (Ar.)
salı̄khah [shajarat al-]
A small tree with perfumed bark which can also be used for cooking; Chinese cinnamon tree (FN 2:1252; Lane, 1404; Wehr, 491) (Ar.)
saljam, salājim
Rapeseed or turnip (FN 1:543–52; Dı̄nawarı̄, 43; Lane, 1402; Wehr, 490) (Ar.)
salq
Red beet (Lane, 1410); a variety of chard (FN 1:607–14; Wehr, 494) (Ar.)
salsabil
A hapax legomenon in the Qurʾān and one of the names of the celestial rivers therein mentioned (Q 76:18) (Ar.)
salʿ
A type of vine similar to the sanʿabuq, except that it grows near trees, has no leaves and creates a kind of lattice network along branches (Dı̄nawarı̄, 44; Lane, 1407) (Ar.)
samallaḥ
A type of grass that grows in meadows (Dı̄nawarı̄, 48) (Ar.)
samlaj
A type of grass that grows in meadows (Dı̄nawarı̄, 48) (Ar.)
samm (pl. sumūm)
Poison (Ar.)
samsaq
Jasmine (Dı̄nawarı̄, 47) (Ar.)
samurah (pl. samur) [shajarat al-]
A type of tree known for small leaves, short thorns, and yellow fruits (barmah) similar to the fruit of the ʿiḍāh tree which men eat (Dı̄nawarı̄, 46; Lane, 1425) (Ar.)
sarā
Palace, mansion. (STG) (Pers.)
sarā parda
Curtain, especially at the door of a royal palace or pavilion; wall of canvas surrounding a cluster of tents; royal court; women enclosed in the seraglio; sarā parda gushūdan to open the royal tent; sarā parda-yi jahān the sky. (STG) (Pers.)
sarābūstān
Garden adjoining a house. (STG) (Pers.)
sarāy
House, palace, grand edifice, king’s court, seraglio; sarāy-i baqā mansion of eternity, the other world; sarāy-i surūr tavern, paradise. (STG) (Pers.)
sarā’ah (pl. sarā’)
A species of tree from which Arabian bows are made (Dı̄nawarı̄, 34) (Ar.)
sardar
Lintel of a door. (STG) (Pers.)
sarīr
Throne. (STG) (Pers.)
sarḥah (pl. sarḥ) [shajarat al-]
A very large tree which people often sit under for shade (Dı̄nawarı̄, 25) (Ar.)
sarmaq
Potentially Chenopodium or Atriplex hortensis (Dı̄nawarı̄, 36; Freytag, 2:311) (Ar.)
sarū [shajarat al-]
Cypress (Ar.)
sarv
Cypress tree; fir tree. (STG) (Pers.)
sarvistān
A place abounding with cypresses. (STG) (Pers.)
saṭṭāḥ
Creeping vine (Dı̄nawarı̄, 36; Lane, 1357) (Ar.)
sawlaʿ
Bitter aloe (Ar.)
sawsan
Lily or iris (Dı̄nawarı̄, 54; FN 1:129–31; Ibn Mammātı̄, 86) (Ar.)
saykarān
Technical term applied to plants that remain green throughout the summer (Dı̄nawarı̄, 57) (Ar.)
saʿaf (pl. suʿūf)
Dried palm branch, including the fronds (see also Ar. shaṭabah) (Ar.)
saʿdān
Thorns of the palm tree (Dı̄nawarı̄, 38–39) (Ar.)
saʿı̄ṭ
The oil of the mustard seed (khardal); also the oil of horseradish (bān); also used to describe a sweet or pleasant odor, such as that of wine (Dı̄nawarı̄, 39; Lane, 1364) (Ar.)
sābāt
Covered passage connecting two houses. (STG) (Pers.)
sāj, sījān [shajarat al-]
Teak, Indian oak (Dı̄nawarı̄, 25; Wehr, 454) (Ar.)
sālikh [shajarat al-]
A synonym for the ḥamḍ tree without leaves (khūṣah) (Dı̄nawarı̄, 26) (Ar.)
sāsib [shajarat al-]
A species of tree from which Arabian bows are made (Dı̄nawarı̄, 25) (Ar.)
sāsim [shajarat al-]
A species of tree from which Arabian bows are made (Dı̄nawarı̄, 25–26) (Ar.)
sāyabān
Canopy, parasol; a shade formed by foliage or by any other projection; tent, pavilion. (STG) (Pers.)
sebze bahçesi
Vegetable garden (NA); truck garden. (TRM) (Ot.)
sebzelik
Vegetable garden. (MED) (ARK) (TRM) (ARK) (KUB) (Ot.)
sebzezar
Kitchen garden, green field. (R) (Ot.)
sela
Rock (Heb.)
semadar
Nascent fruit (Heb.)
setli bahçe
Hanging gardens, terraced gardens. (NA) (ARS) (TRM) (Ot.)
seyremek
To plant seedlings in the garden. (TRM) (Ot.)
sibistān [shajarat al-]
Cordia (Dīnawarī, 27) (Ar.)
sid
Lime (Heb.)
sidrā
Lote tree (Q 53:14, 16; Dı̄nawarı̄, 32) (Ar.)
siḥā’ah [shajarat al-]
A low-growing tree with tiny thorns and from which a particular type of honey is made (Dīnawarī, 29) (Ar.)
sijillāṭ
According to Dīnawarī, this is another term for jasmine (Dīnawarī, 29) (Ar.)
sikul
Clearing, removal of stones from the field (Heb.)
silq
Beet, especially of the red variety (Lane, 1410) (Ar.)
simsim
Sesame (FN 1:524–27; Dı̄nawarı̄, 47–48) (Ar.)
sindiyān [shajarat al-]
Holm oak tree (FNI 2:1247–48) (Ar.)
sineç
Hedge; fence around the gardens and vineyard. (TRM) (Ot.)
siper çiti
Protection hedge, fence. (TRM) (Ot.)
sı̄nı̄nah [shajarat al-]
A type of tree (Dı̄nawarı̄, 57) (Ar.)
sı̄sbānā
Either the Cordia flower or the Abraham’s balm (monk’s pepper) tree (FN 1:529-28) (Syr.)
sı̄sanbar
A type of sweet basil (see also rayḥān), otherwise known as al-nammām (Dīnawarī, 56) (Ar.)
sı̄yāsādūrā
Mesopotamian plant common found in and around Nineveh (FN 1:621–22) (Syr.)
soba
Hothouse. (R) (NA) (HAY) (Ot.)
soch
Large branch (Heb.)
sofa
Raised flower bed (R) (MED) (ARS); sofa to sit on in gardens. (İNŞ) (Ot.)
soreg
Grate, barrier (Heb.)
subāṭah
Bunch, raceme of a palm tree; cluster of fruit (Lane, 1295; Wehr, 458) (Ar.)
su dolabı
Noria, waterwheel (R); wheel for raising water. (ARS) (TRM) (TEM) (Ot.)
suf
Reed, a plant that rows along streams and swamps (typha) (Heb.)
suffa
Sofa, bench; dais, estrade, or raised floor; covered place for reclining in front of the the doors of houses or mosques. (STG) (Pers.)
sukarah
(Ar.)
sukkah
Tabernacle (Heb.)
sukkar
Sugar (Dı̄nawarı̄, 41; Lane, 1391) (Ar.)
Sukkoth
Feast of Tabernacles, when the crops are being harvested (Heb.)
sulam
Ladder (Heb.)
sullaj [shajarat al-]
A type of tree or bush similar or related to the ḥamḍ tree, which grows quite large, and resembles the tails of the ḍubāb lizards, perhaps due to its green color and thorns; camels eat it (Dı̄nawarı̄, 42; Lane, 1401) (Ar.)
sullā’
The prickles of the palm tree (Lane, 1398) (Ar.)
sult
A type of barley without husk that is planted in the land of the Arabs (Dīnawarī, 42; Lane, 1401) (Ar.)
summāq [shajarat al-]
Sumac (FN 2:1262; Dı̄nawarı̄, 46) (Ar.)
sumnah
A grass with leaves and stalks, slightly tinged white (Dı̄nawarı̄, 48) (Ar.)
sunbul[ah], sanābil and sunbulāt
Ear, spike of grain (Ar.)
sunbul hindī
Indian spikenard (Lane, 1440; Wehr, 506) (Ar.)
sunbul rūmı̄
Celtic spikenard (Lane, 1440; Wehr, 506) (Ar.)
sunbul al-ṭı̄b
Indian nard (Ar.)
suqm (asqām)
Disease (Ar.)
sutun āvand
Portico a veranda supported by a single column. (STG) (Pers.)
syafa
Last and poorest crop (Heb.)
suʿādā
A type of cypress (suʿd) (Dı̄nawarı̄, 37) (Ar.)
suʿd [shajarat al-]
Cypress (FN 1:629–32; Dı̄nawarı̄, 37–38; Lane, 1361; Wehr, 478) (Ar.)

ṣabā
Easterly wind (Ar.)
ṣabir or ṣabr
Aloe (Ar.)
ṣaliʿa yaṣlaʿu al-ṣalaʿ
To fall (leaves, buds, fruits) (Ar.)
ṣanawbar
Pine nut (FN 2:1222–23) (Ar.)
ṣandal
Sandalwood (Ar.)
ṣāḥib-i tukhm
Title awarded to the most successful grower of new flower types in the Ottoman empire, primarily at the height of tulip-mania (Ot.)
ṣubār, also ṣubbayr
Prickly pear; Indian fig (Ar.)

shabām
(Ar.)
shabāriq [shajarat al-]
A tall tree, the leaves of which are course like the leaves of a berry tree (Dı̄nawarı̄, 58–59) (Ar.)
shabbāk
A type of plant similar to the dalbūth, except that it is larger in size (Ar.)
shabistān
Bed; bedchamber. (STG) (Pers.)
shabīh
Name given to a vegetable similar to lūbīyā (green beans) that is planted generally in December in Mesopotamia (FN 1:595–96) (Syr.)
shajarah, shajar, or ashjār
Tree, shrub, bush (Ar.)
shamar, also shamrah
Fennel (Wehr, 567) (Ar.)
shamāl
North; the north wind (Ar.)
shaqed
almond (Heb.)
sharbīn [shajarat al-]
Cedar: variety of juniper tree (FN 2:1229–30; Wehr, 541) (Ar.)
shatil
Sapling (Heb.)
shatuniyyah
The litter or organic remnant/detritus (see ithr) of what has been irrigated or was unsown the previous year (Ibn Mammātī, 202) (Ar.)
shaṭabah (pl. shaṭabāt)
Lush palm branch (Ar.)
shawk, ashwāk
Thorns (Ar.)
shādurvān
Large veil, curtain, or tapestry suspended before the gate of a royal palace; projecting roof; cornice; eaves; a kind of variously ornamented and moveable Turkoman house. (STG) (Pers.)
shāh
King, sovereign, emperor, monarch, prince. (STG) (Pers.)
shāhjūy
Grand channel. (Pers.)
shāhnishīn
Seat of the king, i.e. a gallery or balcony projecting from the palace, where the king shows himself to his people; a balcony gallery, portico, or similar projection. (STG) (Pers.)
shākhsār
Full of branches, abounding in trees; the extremity of a branch. (Pers.)
shāmiāna
Tent; canopy. Tents remained an important element in Mughal lives. Tents were pitched in gardens to provide shelter in good weather and for the enjoyment of outdoor activities. Tents were also seen in the chihl sutuns above the royal seat on important occasions. These shāmianās provided shelter for the nobility as well as decorative accent. (F.D) (Urdu)
shibolet
Elongated flowering head of a plant such as wheat or barley (Heb.)
shided
Crumbled the top layer of soil; loosened with a harrow (Heb.)
shoresh
Root (Heb.)
shoshan
Lily (Heb.)
shuturgalū
Underground water tubes shaped like the neck of a camel. (Pers.)
shūmkarrāth
A Mesopotamian vegetable similar to the Syrian leek and also similar to an onion (FN 1:583-84) (Syr.)

şadırvan
Fountain of water (with a jet in the middle); reservoir with faucets at the sides for ablution, usually attached to a mosque (R) (NA) (ARS) (Ot.)
şeftalı
Peach (Ot.)
şeytansaçı
Hemp (Ot.)
şükūfe
Flower (Ot.)
şükūfebāşi
Chief flower gardener at the Sublime Porte (Ot.)
şükūfeci (pl. şükūfejiyān)
Florist (Ot.)

tabgh
tobacco (see also tütün) (Ar.)
tabn, also tibn
Straw, stalk, and/or stem (Ar.)
tabqa
Story; floor; stage. (F.U.E.D) (S.N) (Urdu)
tafarrujgāh
Delightful place for recreation (as a garden, meadow, or theater). (STG) (Pers.)
taielet
Promenade (Heb.)
tajar
Winter house. (STG) (Pers.)
takhrīj
A kind of loggia. (MUN) (Pers.)
takht
Seat where two or more persons could sit, relax, or chat; sitting platform. These could be in the interior or exterior of the house. The design of the takht depended upon the position/title of the user. Takht-e-taus (Peacock Throne) was the most elaborate among all indoor takhts of the Mughal period. Its background walls were decorated with pietra dura work using most precious stones. Wooden takhts were portable and could be placed anywhere in a garden; later, these takhts were built with different materials such as marble. (T.L) (Urdu)
takht
Royal throne, chair of state; seat, sofa; bed; any place raised above the ground for sleeping, sitting, or reclining; a capital; the royal residence. (STG) (Pers.)
takhtgāh
Place of the throne; seat of the king. (MUN) (Pers.)
takman
A small portion of a garden, small garden. (TRM) (Ot.)
takya
Place of repose; alcove; pillow; anything upon which one leans. (STG) (Pers.)
tal
Dew (Heb.)
tamar
Date fruit (Ar.)
tamar
Date tree (Heb.)
tamar
Tree of the palm family, the fruit of which has the same name (Song of Sol. 7:7–8) (Heb.)
tamarhindī
Tamarind (Ibn Mammātī, 82) (Ar.)
tanabī
Open-fronted summer room; parlor or dining room. (STG) (Pers.)
tanbūsha
Earthenware tube through which water passes. (Pers.)
tannūb [shajarat al-]
Fir tree (FN 2:1225–26) (Ar.)
tapuakh
apple (Heb.)
tarah
Layout. (B.K.) (Bayaz) (Urdu)
tarah ārāi
Designing, Layout planning. (Urdu)
tarak
Rake, harrow. (R) (TRM) (ARS) (LEH) (YTL) (Ot.)
taraklamak
To rake, to harrow. (R) (TDK) (HAY) (LEH) (Ot.)
tarh
Flowerbed; garden border (R) (NA); place set aside to plant flowers. (TDK) (MED) (ARK) (FED) (KUB) (Ot.)
tavīla
Stable. (STG) (Pers.)
tābdān
Window; skylight. (STG) (Pers.)
tābkhāna
Hothouse; winter habitation; warm bath; summer quarters; greenhouse. (STG) (Pers.)
tālāb
Pond, pool; reservoir of water. (F.U.E.D) (Urdu)
tālār
Bedchamber or saloon, built of wood and supported by four columns; throne. (STG) (Pers.)
tāq-i bustān
Loggia. (Pers.)
tāqcha
Shelf or niche. Tāqchas are generally constructed in places where lamps are placed, such as sāvan bhādon and baradaris. Both functional and decorative. They are designed to hold oil lamps or simply to add depth to an otherwise bare wall. One of the beautiful examples of taqchas may be seen in the baradaris on the bank of Ana Sagar lake at Ajmer. (T.L) (Urdu)
tāra
Cupola; circular wooden building. (STG) (Pers.)
tārum
Circular wooden building with an arched roof; dome; roof; palisade to exclude people from a garden. (STG) (Pers.)
tāv khāna
Hothouse, conservatory; bath; summer residence; summer quarters for soldiers. (STG) (Pers.)
tāzh
Tent, pavilion of cotton or muslin. (STG) (Pers.)
tekke
Dervish lodge. (R) (Ot.)
telem
Furrow (Heb.)
teneh
Wicker basket; fruit basket (Heb.)
teresh
Rock (Heb.)
teva
Nature (Heb.)
tevuah
General name for all cultivated foods (Heb.)
te’enah
Fig (Heb.)
tırmık
Rake, harrow. (R) (LEH) (Ot.)
tia'a
Planting (Heb.)
tichuach
Loosening the soil by raking or plowing (Heb.)
tiltan
Clover (Heb.)
tilul
Creating mounds of soil around the bases of trees (Heb.)
tin
Clay; silt; mud (Heb.)
tirmis or turmus
Lupine (Ar.)
tiuve
Improvement of the soil (Heb.)
tīn
Fig (Ar.)
topographia
Topography (Heb.)
toprak
Soil, earth (Ot.)
tsnon
Radish (Heb.)
tufāḥ
Apple (FN 2:1219–21) (Ar.)
tuff
Tuff, tufa (Heb.)
tukhm
Seed (Ot.)
tundidan, tandidan
To put forth flowers, buds, or leaves (trees). (STG) (Pers.)
turāb
Dirt (Ar.)
turfanda
Early fruits or vegetables. (R) (NA) (TDK) (DGA) (HAY) (Ot.)
turfandalık
Garden or field for growing early fruits and vegetables. (R) (TDK) (TRM) (KUB) (TEM) (Ot.)
turi'ia
Hoe (Heb.)
turra
Coping of a wall. (STG) (Pers.)
tuvāra
Thorns fixed on a wall; straw hut in which keepers of vineyard take shelter. (STG) (Pers.)
türbe
Tomb, grave, mausoleum. (R) (Ot.)
tūt
Berry (FN 2:1221–22) (Ar.)
tūt
Strawberry (Heb.)
tütün
Tobacco (see also tabagh) (Ot.)
tvuot choref
? (Heb.)
tza'yid
Hunt (Heb.)
tzartzar
Cricket (Heb.)
tzel
Shade (Heb.)
tzemach
Plant (Heb.)
tzfarde'a
Frog (Heb.)
tzinor
Hose, pipe (Heb.)
tzipor
Bird (Heb.)
tziporen
One of the incense plants used at the Temple (eugenia caryophyllata) (Heb.)
tzira'a
Hornet (Heb.)
tznon
Radish (Heb.)
tzome'ach
Vegetation (Heb.)
tzuh
Nectar (Heb.)
tzvi
Deer, gazelle (Heb.)

ṭabīʿah
Nature; physics (see also Heb. teva) (Ar.)
ṭalʿ
Spadix or inflorescence of the palm tree; pollen (Ibn Mammātı̄, 86; Lane, 1869; Wehr, 661) (Ar.)
ṭarīy[ah]
Soft, supple, tender; fresh (Ar.)
ṭarmākī
A seed planted at the same time of wheat (see ḥinṭah), the best season for planting being in late January/early February; it is similar to the jūbı̄thā kuwı̄ (FN 1:517) (Syr.)
ṭı̄b
Goodness, heartiness (as used in reference to soil) (Ar.)
ṭı̄n
Mud, dirt (Ar.)

thamar[ah]
Fruit (Ar.)
tharūmı̄shā
Syriac seed type which supposedly corresponds to a Greek plant transliterated into Arabic as thirṭāniyā (FN 1:517–18) (Syr.)
thumām
Panic grass (see also gharaz) (Ar.)
thūm
Garlic (FN 1:577–81) (Ar.)
thūnīghā
Syriac name for a plant that has a hollow stem and is white, what the Persians call shahdānaj (hemp seed) (FN 1:519–20) (Syr.)

uqḥuwān
Camomile (see also bābūnaj) (FN 1:135–36) (Ar.)
urusī
Sliding window that opens vertically; also used for rooms that have this kind of window. (Pers.)
utāq
Room, chamber, cabin. (STG) (Pers.)

vādīj
Trellis, vine-prop; vine-bud, the place where grapes are hung up; vādij bastan to tie the vine on a pergola. (STG) (Pers.)

wajj
Mesopotamian plant similar to the sawsan (lily or iris) (FN vol. I, 633) (Syr.)
waraqah (pl. awrāq or waraq)
Leaves (Ar.)
wazagh (pl. awzāgh)
Poisonous lizard (Ar.)
wāḥah (pl. wāḥāt)
Oasis (Ar.)
wārā ʿālā
A plant that is foreign to Mesopotamia and supposedly hails from either Greece or Egypt, the shaft of which is similar to hilyawn (asparagus) (FN 1:596–97) (Syr.)
waskh ghālib
Egyptian phrase used to designate land which has been overtaken by plants that have prevented farmers from turning it into productive soil for farming (Ibn Mammātı̄, 203) (Ar.)
waskh muzdaraʿ
Egyptian phrase used to designate land, the soil of which farmers have been unable to properly farm (Ibn Mammātı̄ 203) (Ar.)

yabrūḥ
Mandrake (Ar.)
yagev
Field (Heb.)
yalak
Basin prepared to plant vegetables or fruits. (MER) (Ot.)
yanbūt
Bean clover (Ar.)
yanbūʿ (pl. yanābīʿ)
Spring (Ar.)
yaqtin
Creeping plant of the gourd family (Ar.)
yarak
Vegetable (Heb.)
yarkan
Greengrocer, vegetable grower/dealer (Heb.)
yarok
Green herb (Heb.)
yarok ad
Evergreen plants (Heb.)
yasemin
Jasmine (FN 1:136–37) (Ot.)
yastık
Nursery bed (garden). (R) (ARS) (HAY) (MED) (KUB) (Ot.)
yatak
Nursery bed. (TDK) (Ot.)
ya'ar
Forest (Heb.)
ya'aran
Forester (Heb.)
ya'in
Wine (Heb.)
yābis[ah]
Dry, parched, desiccated, arid; barren (Ar.)
yāsmīn
Jasmine (Ibn Mammātı̄, 86) (Ar.)
yegiva
Fieldwork; crop management (Heb.)
yekev
Wine cellar, wine press (Heb.)
yerakot Choref
Winter vegetable; winter crops (Heb.)
yerek
Green herbs; vegetation; foliage (Heb.)
yevol
Crop (Heb.)
yeynail, yeynan
Wine produre/salesman (Heb.)
yibol
Weeding (Heb.)
yogev
Farmer (Heb.)
yokev
Vineyard owner (Heb.)
yonca
Clover (Ot.)
yurd
Chamber, room, apartment. (STG) (Pers.)
yūlūrı̄thā
A Syriac name for a seed or grain from the plant genus also known in Syriac as kalbā (FN 1:515–16) (Syr.)
yūrt
Resting place, station, abode, mansion; encampment. (STG) (Pers.)

zabal, also zabbal or zibl
(Fresh) dung, manure, especially of solid-hoofed animals; compost (Lane, 1212); (Ar.)
zabı̄l, also zabbı̄ıl or zanbı̄l (pl. azbāl)
Basket of palm leaves (Lane, 1212) (Ar.)
zanjabīl
Ginger (FN 1:636; Lane, 1256) (Ar.)
zanzalakht [shajarat al-]
China tree (Wehr, 445) (Ar.)
zarnab [shajarat al-]
A bitter-smelling, perfumed tree primarily found in Syria (FN 2:1247; Lane, 1228) (Ar.)
zaytūn
Olive (FN 1:12–53, 2:1183–84) (Ar.)
zevel, zaval
Dung or other animal excrement or decayed organic or mineral remains used as fertilizer; the name of the person who fertilizes a field (Heb.)
zibul
Fertilization (Heb.)
zimra
Best fruit; the pick of the crop (Heb.)
zunbūr
Hornet; wasp (see also Ar. dabbūr) (Ar.)
zuʿrūr [shajarat al-]
Azarole, Neapolitan medlar (FN 1:165–67; Wehr, 438) (Ar.)
zvula
Digging tool (Heb.)
zvurit
Barren or poor quality soil (Heb.)

ʿabāl
A variety of wild rose; eglantine (Wehr, 688) (Ar.)
ʿadas (ʿadasāt)
Lentils (see also Heb. ʿadashah) (Ar.)
ʿafis[ah]
Pungent, putrid (Ar.)
ʿanavah
Berry (Heb.)
ʿarʿar
Juniper (Juniperus) (Ar.)
ʿaqqār (pl. ʿaqāqı̄r)
medicinal materials (Ar.)
ʿawsaj
Boxthorn (FN 1:191–93; Wehr, 769) (Ar.)
ʿiḍāh [shajarat al-]
Any great trees or bushes having thorns (Lane, 2076) (Ar.)
ʿillah, ʿilal
Illness, sickness (applied to both mammals and plants; see also maraḍ) (Ar.)
ʿinab
Grape (Ar.)
ʿuslūj, ʿasālīj
Soft green rods or twigs (Ar.)
ʿı̄shūm [shajarat al-]
A tree or bush that is unknown to Ibn Waḥshiyyah by name or description; it is also foreign to Mesopotamia. It reaches a height of 2.5 arms, exudes a nice perfume similar to that of the cypress (suʿd), and has tiny red flowers similar to the rāzı̄ flower (FN 1:176) (Ar.)
ʿubub
Waters pouring forth copiously (Lane I, 1932) (Ar.)
ʿunbab
Abundance of water (Lane I, 1932) (Ar.)
ʿushar [shajarat al-]
A tree or bush that, according to the Ibn Waḥshīyah, is cultivated and found only in the hottest of Arab countries (e.g., Hijaz, Najd, and their environs), as well as in Ceylon (Ar. Sarandīb); from its sap a bitter sugar known as ʿushar sugar is made and it “very suitable for the stomach” (FN 1:172–73). For a more diverse account of the description of the tree, including its categorization under the type of tree/shrub ʿiḍāḥ, see Lane, 2051 (Ar.)
ʿushb
Herbs (Ar.)
ʿuṣbah
Vine (Ar.)
ʿuṭlub
A subterranean fungus (FN 1:603–4) (Syr.)
ʿunnāb
Jujube (FN 2:1191–94; Lane, 2167; Wehr, 759) (Ar.)
ʿurjūn (ʿarājı̄n)
Date palm branch with date cluster (Wehr, 704) (Ar.)
ʿūd
Wood, timber (Ar.)