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Bologna, Biblioteca Universitaria, 3636


Additional Information

  • Appr. Date: 14th c., 15th c. (14th-15th c.)
  • Genres: Medical or scientific
  • Illustrations: No


In a few places (perhaps more, but it is difficult to say from microfilm) there is another numeration, above that which we have followed here, in a smaller, neater hand. This appears to be later but we cannot say for sure. Our fol. 154 has “163”; our fol. 198 has “205” (the relations within the two pairs are different).

151v-197r  Comentarii in Hippocratis Aphorismos, attributed by Pinakes (as of July 2011) to Philotheus Medicus but we are unable to verify whether the name here should in fact be so read, or if Theophilus (Protospatharius) were a better reading, the famous medical writer (cf. Bononiensis 3632, Berolinus gr. 120, &c.) who these commentaries are usually attributed to and who was often confused or identified with, or alternatively named as, Philotheus. At the close of the collection (197r) is an inscription in the large, exulting letters of someone relieved to be finished; it is very difficult (nobis humilioribus) to read, but seems to say «τῶν ἀφορισμῶν Ἱπποκράτους τοῦ Θεοφίλου», since the scribe generally writes letters on top of each other from the bottom up; more well-trained eyes, however, might see it as reading Φιλοθέου. (Might this even be intentional on the part of a witty scribe, who knows about this confusion?) The numeration and even wording is often different from what we have found in editions (we suspect interpolations and/or reworkings).

151v  Smallish writing on otherwise empty page, «Ἀφορισμός ἐστι λόγος σύντομος αὐτοτελῆ διάνοιαν ἀπαρτίζων, ἢ λόγος κατὰ μὲν τὴν προφορὰν ἤτοι τὴν φράσιν πενόμενος, πλουτῶν δὲ ταῖς ἐνθυμήσεσιν. Εἴρηται δὲ ἀφορισμὸς διὰ τὸ περιορίζεσθαι ἐν αὐτῷ τὸ νόημα, καὶ ἀφορίζεσθαι καὶ ἀποδιΐστασθαι, ἀπό τε τῶν πρὸ αὐτοῦ καὶ τῶν μετ’ αὐτόν. +»  In very tiny letters at the bottom, (a title?) barely legible, apparently «ἀφορισμοὶ Ἱπποκράτους [περὶ?] [¿ἀ....?]» (not ἀέρων).

152r-197r  Hippocrates’ sayings on the inside (gutter side) of each page (starting with “ars longa, vita brevis est” κλπ.), with marginal scholia on the outer («ἑνὸς ἀνθρώπου ζωὴ παραμετρουμένη, ἡ τέχνη τῆς ἰατρικῆς ὑπάρχει μακρά...»). They seem (ἐφόσον διακρίνειν δύνανται οἱ ἡμέτεροι ὀφθαλμίσκοι) to be in the same hand.

New sections are marked with large letters:
154r  + Ἀφορισμῶν Ἱπποκράτους, τμῆμα δεύτερον +
163v  + Ἀφορισμῶν Ἱπποκράτους, τμῆμα τρίτον +
170r  + Ἀφορισμῶν Ἱπποκράτους, τμῆμα τέταρτον +
177r  + Ἀφορισμῶν Ἱπποκράτους, τμῆμα πέμπτον +
185r  + Ἀφορισμῶν Ἱπποκράτους, τμῆμα ἕκτον +
191r  + Ἀφορισμῶν Ἱπποκράτους, τμῆμα ἕβδομον +

159r/v  Between the aphorism beginning «Ὁκόσοισι δὲ νέουσιν ἐοῦσιν αἱ κοιλίαι ὑγραί εἰσι...» and the sound advice (Spartan in expression, if Ionian in sentiment), «Λιμὸν θώρηξις λύει» (2.20 and 2.21 in modern edd., but respectively κα’ and κβ’ in this ms.) is another, which begins with less pleasing grammar but whose authenticity the reader may judge of himself. It reads in full, «Ὁκόσοισι τὰς κοιλίας ὑγρὰς ἔχουσι, νέοι μὲν ὄντες, βέλτιον ἀπαλάσσουσι τῶν ξηρὰς ἐχόντων. Εἰς δὲ τὸ γῆρας, χεῖρον ἀπαλάσσουσι· ξηραίνονται γὰρ αὐτέοισιν, ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πολὺ τοῖς ἀπογηράσκουσιν.» The scholiast, having given a lengthy commentary to the previous statement, here writes simply, «Ὅμοιος ὁ ἀφορισμὸς οὑτοσὶ τῷ πρὸ αὐτοῦ ἀφορισμῷ.»

195r  Along with an aphorism marked νγ’ and lacking certain Ionian features («Ὅσοις δ’ ἂν τὸ ἧπαρ ὕδατος πλησθὲν...ὕδατος ἐμπίπλαται καὶ ἀποθνῄσκουσιν.») is a fairly long scholium («Ἐπιτηδειότατόν ἐστι τὸ ἧπαρ ὑδατίδας γεννῆσαι...συμπλάστρας ἀλοιφαῖς.»), followed by the words, centered on the page, «καὶ τοῖς λοιποῖς:», perhaps meaning that the comments apply to what follows.  Aphorisms continue for the next three and a quarter pages, but with (short) marginal notes only on 195v.

197v  Blank.

198r  At the beginning of the page is a short discussion of old measurements (τὸ ὀξύβαφον, τὸ μικρὸν μύστρον, τὸ ἰταλικὸν κεράμιον, κλπ.).  After a wavy divider begins a new section, with selections from Book Two of Cassianus Bassus’s De Agricultura (beginning with advice on the value of oversight):  Ἐκ τῶν ἐπὶ γεωργίας ἐκλογῶν Κασσιανοῦ Βάσσου τοῦ σχολαστικοῦ + Βιβλίον β’ περιέχον τάδ + Ὅτι πολὺ τῷ ἀγρῷ ὠφέλιμος ἡ τοῦ δεσπότου παρουσία + Ὅτι μάλιστα παῖδες πρὸς γεωργίαν ἐπιτήδειοι καὶ ὅτι πρὸς τὴν ποιότητα τῶν ἔργων τὰ σώματα τῶν ἐργαζομένων ἐπιλέγεσθαι προσήκει· καὶ ἑκάστῳ ἔργῳ τὸν ἁρμόζοντα ἀφορίζειν +

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