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Theoktistos ὁ τῆς Πρώτης, protospatharios, judge of the Hippodrome and of the Opsikion (eleventh century)

 
 

Obverse

Bust of the Virgin holding the medallion of Christ before her. Sigla (reversed): υ̅θ-.. : [Μ(ήτη)ρ] Θ(εο)ῦ. Circular inscription along a border of dots:

θκεRοηθιτ

Θ(εοτό)κε βοήθι τῷ [σῷ δούλῳ]

Reverse

Inscription of seven lines followed by decoration. Border of dots.

οκτι
ασπα
ιτηεπι
...ποδρ,S
...ψικι
..ησπρ
τησ
[-]•-

[Θε]οκτί[στ]ῳ (πρωτο)σπα[θ(αρίῳ), κρ]ιτῇ ἐπὶ [τ(οῦ) Ἱπ]ποδρ(όμου) (καὶ) [τοῦ Ὀ]ψικίου [τ(ῷ) τ]ῆς Πρώτης

Obverse

Bust of the Virgin holding the medallion of Christ before her. Sigla (reversed): υ̅θ-.. : [Μ(ήτη)ρ] Θ(εο)ῦ. Circular inscription along a border of dots:

θκεRοηθιτ

Θ(εοτό)κε βοήθι τῷ [σῷ δούλῳ]

Reverse

Inscription of seven lines followed by decoration. Border of dots.

οκτι
ασπα
ιτηεπι
...ποδρ,S
...ψικι
..ησπρ
τησ
[-]•-

[Θε]οκτί[στ]ῳ (πρωτο)σπα[θ(αρίῳ), κρ]ιτῇ ἐπὶ [τ(οῦ) Ἱπ]ποδρ(όμου) (καὶ) [τοῦ Ὀ]ψικίου [τ(ῷ) τ]ῆς Πρώτης

Accession number BZS.1958.106.5226
Diameter 23.0 mm
Previous Editions

DO Seals 3, no. 39.19.

Translation

Θεοτόκε βοήθι τῷ σῷ δούλῳ Θεοκτίστῳ πρωτοσπαθαρίῳ, κριτῇ ἐπὶ τοῦ Ἱπποδρόμου καὶ τοῦ Ὀψικίου τῷ τῆς Πρώτης.

Mother of God, help your servant Theoktistos ho tes Protes, protospatharios, judge of the Hippodrome and of the Opsikion.

Commentary

We known two more seals of this same individual when he was a protospatharios epi tou Chrysotriklinou and judge of the Hippodrome (without mandate in a particular province): Laurent, Corpus II, nos. 877, 878.

Opsikion was one of the earliest themes of Byzantium; its name from the term obsequium (retinue), often called "imperial obsequium guarded by God." Its territory included many provinces and initially encompassed all northwestern Asia Minor; by the mid-eighth century it was subdivided, and the new themes of the Boukellarioi and of the Optimatoi appeared. All three names show that the origins of this theme are to be sought in the regiments of the imperial guard, and according to some scholars, to the milites praesentales of the fifth century.

The commander of Opsikion traditionally bore the titles of komes, probably because initially he was identical to the comes domesticorum. He is first attested in 626 (perhaps already in 615), and, because of his proximity to Constantinople (his residence was in Nicaea), he played an important role in imperial politics. As this happened regularly with all units of the imperial guard, the tagmata (Listes, 329), the second in command of the Opsikion was called for quite some time a topoteretes (cf. Zacos-Veglery, no. 1762). The province was organized as all other themes (with tourmarchai, anagrapheis, judges, protonotarioi, chartoularioi, strateutai [Laurent, Orghidan, no. 218], etc.), and, already in the ninth century, the commander was also called a strategos (see Listes, 264, footnote 23; Zacos, Seals II, no. 850; Seyrig, no. 191).

The littoral of the Opsikion was also part of the theme of Aigaion Pelagos.

See Pertusi, in De Them., 127-30; Winkelmann, Ämsterstruktur, 72-76, 119-20; ODB III, 1528-29; Haldon, Praetorians, passim, esp. 164 ff; T. Lounghis, "A Deo conservandum imperiale Obsequium," ByzSl 52 (1991) 54-60.

Bibliography

  • Catalogue of Byzantine Seals at Dumbarton Oaks and at the Fogg Museum of Art, Vol. 3: West, Northwest, and Central Asia Minor and the Orient (Open in Zotero)
  • Les listes de préséance byzantines des IXe et Xe siècles (Open in Zotero)
  • Byzantine Lead Seals, Vol. 1 (Open in Zotero)
  • Byzantine Lead Seals, Vol. 2 (Open in Zotero)
  • Documents de sigillographie byzantine: La collection C. Orghidan (Open in Zotero)
  • Les sceaux byzantins de la Collection Henri Seyrig (Open in Zotero)
  • De Thematibus (Open in Zotero)
  • Byzantinische Rang- und Ämterstruktur im 8. und 9. Jahrhundert: Faktoren und Tendenzen ihrer Entwicklung (Open in Zotero)
  • Byzantine Praetorians: An Administrative, Institutional, and Social Survey of the Opsikion and Tagmata, c. 580-900 (Open in Zotero)
  • A Deo conservandum imperiale Obsequium: Some Notes Concering Byzantine Field Troops during the Dark Ages (Open in Zotero)
  • Le Corpus des sceaux de l’empire byzantin (Open in Zotero)