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A bibliography of secondary sources for "The Botany of Empire in the Long Eighteenth Century."


A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z


  • Aguirre de Riojas, Regina, and Elfriede de Pöll. Trees in the Life of the Maya World. Translated by Agneta Eikelenboom, Diana de Padilla, and Sally Evans. Fort Worth, TX: Botanical Research Institute of Texas, 2007.
  • Aitken, Richard. Botanical Riches: Stories of Botanical Exploration. Aldershot, Hampshire and Burlington, VT: Lund Humphries, 2007.
  • Allorge, Lucile. “French Naturalists in the Levant during the Ottoman Empire.” Medicographia 28, no. 3 (2006): 301–9.
  • Archer, Mildred. Natural History Drawings in the India Office Library. London: Published for the Commonwealth Relations Office by H. M. Stationery Office, 1962.
  • Arias Divito, Juan Carlos. Expedición científica de los hermanos Heuland (17951800). Madrid: Edic. Cultura Hispánica del Centro Iberoamericano de Cooperación, 1978.
  • ———. Las expediciones científicas españolas durante el siglo XVIII: Expedición botánica de Nueva España. Madrid: Ediciones cultura hispánica, 1968.
  • Atasoy, Nurhan. A Garden for the Sultan: Gardens and Flowers in the Ottoman Culture. 1st ed. Turkey: Aygaz, 2002.
  • Atasoy, Nurhan, and Lâle Uluç. Impressions of Ottoman Culture in Europe, 14531699. Istanbul: Armaggan, Turkish Cultural Foundation, 2012.


  • Banks, Joseph. The Letters of Sir Joseph Banks: A Selection, 17681820. Edited by Neil Chambers. London: Imperial College Press; River Edge, NJ: Distributed in the USA by World Scientific Pub, 2000.
  • Bauer, Ralph. The Cultural Geography of Colonial American Literatures: Empire, Travel, Modernity. Cambridge Studies in American Literature and Culture 136. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
  • Bayly, Christopher Alan. Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 17801870. Cambridge Studies in Indian History and Society 1. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  • Beattie, James. Empire and Environmental Anxiety: Health, Science, Art and Conservation in South Asia and Australasia, 18001920. Cambridge Imperial and Post-Colonial Studies Series. Houndmills, Basingstoke, Hampshire and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.
  • Bermingham, Ann. Learning to Draw: Studies in the Cultural History of a Polite and Useful Art. New Haven, CT: Published for the Paul Mellon Centre for Studies in British Art by Yale University Press, 2000.
  • Bilgin, Arif, and Özge Samanci. Turkish Cuisine. Translated by Cumhur Orancı. Ankara: Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism, 2008.
  • Bleichmar, Daniela. “Exploration in Print: Books and Botanical Travel from Spain to the Americas in the Late Eighteenth Century.” Huntington Library Quarterly 70, no. 1 (March 2007): 129–51.
  • ———, ed. Science in the Spanish and Portuguese Empires, 15001800. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2009.
  • ———. Visible Empire: Botanical Expeditions and Visual Culture in the Hispanic Enlightenment. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.
  • Blumenthal, Hannah. “A Taste for Exotica: Maria Sibylla Merian’s Metamorphosis Insectorum Surinamensium.” Gastronomica: The Journal of Food and Culture 6, no. 4 (November 2006): 44–52.
  • Blunt, Wilfrid. The Compleat Naturalist: A Life of Linnaeus. New ed. London: Frances Lincoln, 2001.
  • Blunt, Wilfrid, and William T. Stearn. The Art of Botanical Illustration. New ed., rev. and enl. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Antique Collectors’ Club in association with the Royal Botanic Gardens, 1994.
  • Boxer, Charles R. The Dutch Seaborne Empire, 16001800. 1st American ed. The History of Human Society. New York: Knopf, 1965.
  • Breyne, Jakob, and Johann Philipp Breyne. The Flora Capensis of Jakob and Johann Philipp Breyne. Edited by Mary Gunn and Enid du Plessis. Brenthurst Series 4. Johannesburg: Brenthurst Press, 1978.
  • Bridson, Gavin D. R. The History of Natural History: An Annotated Bibliography: A Guide to Sources of Information: Histories, Bibliographies, Biographies, Library Resources, etc. 2nd ed. London: The Linnean Society of London, 2008.
  • Brockway, Lucile H. Science and Colonial Expansion: The Role of the British Royal Botanic Gardens. Studies in Social Discontinuity. New York: Academic Press, 1979.

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  • Calatayud Arinero, María de los Angeles. Catálogo de las expediciones y viajes cientificos españoles a América y Filipinas (siglos XVIII y XIX): Fondos del Archivo del Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales. Colección Tierra nueva e cielo nuevo 12. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Museo Nacional Ciencias Naturales, 1984.
  • Çalış, Bahar Deniz. “Ideal and Real Spaces of Ottoman Imagination: Continuity and Change in Ottoman Rituals of Poetry (Istanbul, 1453–1730).” PhD Thesis, Middle East Technical University, 2004.
  • Cañizares-Esguerra, Jorge. Nature, Empire, and Nation: Explorations of the History of Science in the Iberian World. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2006.
  • Casid, Jill H. Sowing Empire: Landscape and Colonization. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2005.
  • Chang, Michael G. A Court on Horseback: Imperial Touring & the Construction of Qing Rule, 16801785. Harvard East Asian Monographs 287. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center , 2007.
  • Cheston, Emily R. John Bartram, 16991777, His Garden and His House; William Bartram, 17391823. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: John Bartram Association, 1953.
  • Clark, Patricia A]. A Cretan Healer’s Handbook in the Byzantine Tradition: Text, Translation and Commentary. Medicine in the Medieval Mediterranean. Farnham, Surrey, England and Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2011.
  • Cobban, Alfred, ed. The Eighteenth Century: Europe in the Age of Enlightenment. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1969.
  • Commelin, Johannes. Jan Commelin’s Monograph on Cape Flora: Drawings and Descriptions of the Plants That the Hon. Simon van Der Stel, Governor at the Cape of Good Hope, Found on His Great Journey, 1685. Edited by D. O. Wijnands, M. L. Wilson, and T. Toussaint van Hove. 1st ed. Cape Town: s.n., 1996.
  • Conan, Michel, ed. Baroque Garden Cultures: Emulation, Sublimation, Subversion. Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 25. Washington, DC: Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2005.
  • Conan, Michel, and W. John Kress, eds. Botanical Progress, Horticultural Innovation and Cultural Change. Colloquium on the History of Landscape Architecture 28. Washington, DC.: Published by Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection, 2007.
  • Cooper, Alix. Inventing the Indigenous: Local Knowledge and Natural History in Early Modern Europe. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
  • Cullinan, Patrick. Robert Jacob Gordon, 17431795: The Man and His Travels at the Cape. Cape Town: Struik Winchester, 1992.


  • Daston, Lorraine, and Peter Galison. Objectivity. New York: Zone Books; Cambridge, MA: Distributed by the MIT Press, 2007.
  • Debrett, John. The Baronetage of England. 5th ed. London: Printed for C. and J. Rivington [etc.], 1824.
  • Desmond, Ray. Great Natural History Books and Their Creators. 1st ed. New Castle, DE: Oak Knoll Press, 2003.
  • ———. Kew: The History of the Royal Botanic Gardens. London: Harvill Press with the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 1995.
  • ———. Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker: Traveller and Plant Collector. Woodbridge, Suffolk / Kew [England]: Antique Collectors’ Club / Royal Botanic Gardens, 1999.
  • ———. The European Discovery of the Indian Flora. [Kew, Richmond, Surrey] / Oxford and New York: Royal Botanic Gardens / Oxford University Press, 1992.
  • ———. The History of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. 2nd ed. London: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 2007.
  • Díez Torre, Alejandro R. La ciencia española en ultramar: Actas de las I Jornadas sobre “España y las expediciones cientifícas en América y Filipinas.”  Aranjuez (Madrid): Doce Calles, 1991.
  • Drake, James D. The Nation’s Nature: How Continental Presumptions Gave Rise to the United States of America. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2011.
  • Drayton, Richard H. Nature’s Government: Science, Imperial Britain, and the “Improvement” of the World. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
  • Drower, George M. F. Garden of Invention: The Stories of Garden Inventors and Their Innovations. 1st Lyons Press rev. ed. Guilford, Conn: Lyons Press, 2003.
  • Duris, Pascal. Linné et la France, 17801850. Histoire des idées et critique littéraire 318. Geneva: Librairie Droz, 1993.

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  • Endersby, Jim. Imperial Nature: Joseph Hooker and the Practices of Victorian Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.
  • Engstrand, Iris H. W. Spanish Scientists in the New World: The Eighteenth-Century Expeditions. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1981.


  • Fan, Fa-ti. “British Naturalists in China, 1760–1910.” PhD Thesis, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1999.
  • Fara, Patricia. Sex, Botany & Empire: The Story of Carl Linnaeus and Joseph Banks. Revolutions in Science. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
  • Fisher, Celia. The Golden Age of Flowers: Botanical Illustration in the Age of Discovery, 16001800. London: British Library, 2011.
  • Fleming, Fergus. Off the Map: Tales of Endurance and Exploration. 1st American ed. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press, 2004.
  • Foust, Clifford M. Rhubarb: The Wondrous Drug. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1992.
  • Foxhall, Katherine. Health, Medicine, and the Sea: Australian Voyages, c.18151860. Manchester: Manchester University Press; New York: Distributed in the U.S. by Palgrave Macmillan, 2012.
  • Fraser, Michael, and Liz Fraser. The Smallest Kingdom: Plants and Plant Collectors at the Cape of Good Hope. Richmond, Surrey: Kew, 2011.
  • Fry, Carolyn. The Plant Hunters: The Adventures of the World’s Greatest Botanical Explorers. London: Andre Deutsch, 2009.


  • Gage, Andrew T., and William T. Stearn. A Bicentenary History of the Linnean Society of London. London: Academic, 1988.
  • Gascoigne, John. Science in the Service of Empire: Joseph Banks, the British State and the Uses of Science in the Age of Revolution. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Gaskell, Roger. “Printing House and Engraving Shop: A Mysterious Collaboration.” The Book Collector 53, no. 5 (2004): 213–51.
  • Grafton, Anthony. New Worlds, Ancient Texts: The Power of Tradition and the Shock of Discovery. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1992.
  • Grendler, Paul F. The Universities Of The Italian Renaissance. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.
  • Grivetti, Louis E., and Howard-Yana Shapiro, eds. Chocolate: History, Culture, and Heritage. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley, 2009.
  • Grove, Richard H. Green Imperialism: Colonial Expansion, Tropical Island Edens, and the Orgins of Environmentalism, 16001860. Studies in Environment and History. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
  • Guerrini, Anita. “The King’s Animals and the King’s Books: The Illustrations for the Paris Academy’s Histoire Des Animaux.” Annals of Science 67, no. 3 (July 2010): 383–404.
  • Gunn, Mary, and L. E. Codd. Botanical Exploration of Southern Africa: An Illustrated History of Early Botanical Literature on the Cape Flora: Biographical Accounts of the Leading Plant Collectors and Their Activities in Southern Africa from the Days of the East India Company until Modern Times. Flora of Southern Africa (1975). Introductory. Cape Town: Published for the Botanical Research Institute by A. A. Balkema, 1981.

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  • Hamadeh, Shirine. The City’s Pleasures: Istanbul in the Eighteenth Century. Publications on the Near East. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2008.
  • Heniger, J. Hendrik Adriaan van Reede Tot Drakenstein (1636-1691) and Hortus Malabaricus: A Contribution to the History of Dutch Colonial Botany. Rotterdam and Boston: A. A. Balkema, 1986.
  • Henrey, Blanche. British Botanical and Horticultural Literature before 1800: Comprising a History and Bibliography of Botanical and Horticultural Books Printed in England, Scotland, and Ireland from the Earliest Times until 1800. 3 vols. London and New York: Oxford University Press, 1975.
  • Herbert, Eugenia W. Flora’s Empire: British Gardens in India. Penn Studies in Landscape Architecture. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2011.
  • Holmes, Richard. The Age of Wonder: How the Romantic Generation Discovered the Beauty and Terror of Science. 1st U.S. ed. New York: Pantheon Books, 2008.


  • Jardine, Nicholas, James A. Secord, and Emma C. Spary, eds. Cultures of Natural History. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  • Jefferson, Thomas. Notes on the State of Virginia. Edited by William Peden. Chapel Hill: Published for the Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, VA, by the University of North Carolina Press, 1955.
  • Jennings, Anne. Georgian Gardens. London: English Heritage, 2005.
  • Jones, Caroline A., and Peter Galison, eds. Picturing Science, Producing Art. New York: Routledge, 1998.


  • Kaempfer, Engelbert. The History of Japan, Together with a Description of the Kingdom of Siam, 169092. Translated by F. R. S. J. G. Scheuchzer. Glasgow: J. MacLehose and Sons, 1906.
  • Kinukawa, T. “Natural History as Entrepreneurship: Maria Sibylla Merian’s Correspondence with J. G. Volkamer II and James Petiver.” Archives of Natural History 38, no. 2 (September 2011): 313–27.
  • Knobloch, Eberhard. “Alexander von Humboldt—The Explorer and the Scientist.” Centaurus 49, no. 1 (January 2007): 3–14.
  • Kuitert, Wybe. “Georg Meister: A Seventeenth Century Gardener and His Reports on Oriental Garden Art.” Japan Review no. 2 (January 1991): 125–43.
  • Kury, Lorelai Brilhante. Histoire Naturelle et Voyages Scientifiques 17801830. Paris, France: L’Harmattan, 2001.
  • Kwa, Chunglin. “Alexander von Humboldt’s Invention of the Natural Landscape.” European Legacy 10, no. 2 (April 2005): 149–62.

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  • Lack, H. Walter. Alexander Von Humboldt and the Botanical Exploration of the Americas. Translated by Stephen Telfer. Munich and New York: Prestel, 2009.
  • ———. Franz Bauer: The Painted Record of Nature. Vienna: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, 2008.
  • ———. Jardin de La Malmaison: Empress Josephine’s Garden. Translated by Martin Walters. Munich: Prestel, 2004.
  • ———. The Flora Graeca Story: Sibthorp, Bauer, and Hawkins in the Levant. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
  • Laird, Mark. The Flowering of the Landscape Garden: English Pleasure Grounds, 17201800. Penn Studies in Landscape Architecture. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999.
  • Lawrence, George H. M. Lawrence, ed. A Catalogue of Redoutéana Exhibited at the Hunt Botanical Library 21 April to 1 August 1963. Pittsburgh: Hunt Botanical Library, Carnegie Institute of Technology, 1963.
  • Laws, Bill. Fifty Plants That Changed the Course of History. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books, 2010.
  • Lefèvre, Wolfgang, Jürgen Renn, and Urs Schoepflin, eds. The Power of Images in Early Modern Science. Basel and Boston: Birkhäuser, 2003.
  • Lemmon, Kenneth. The Golden Age of Plant Hunters. 1st American ed. South Brunswick, N.Y: A. S. Barnes, 1969.
  • Lincoln, Margarette, ed. Science and Exploration in the Pacific: European Voyages to the Southern Oceans in the Eighteenth Century. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK and Rochester, NY, USA: Boydell Press in association with the National Maritime Museum, 1998.
  • Lindsay, Ann. Seeds of Blood and Beauty: Scottish Plant Explorers. Rev. ed. Edinburgh: Birlinn, 2008.
  • Linné, Carl von. Linnaeus’ Philosophia Botanica. Translated by Stephen Freer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003.


  • Mackaness, George. Sir Joseph Banks: His Relations with Australia. Sydney: Angus & Robertson, 1936.
  • MacLeod, Roy, ed. Nature and Empire: Science and the Colonial Enterprise. Osiris: A Research Journal Devoted to the History of Science and Its Cultural Influences 2nd ser., v. 15. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.
  • Magee, Judith. Art of Nature: Three Centuries of Natural History Art from Around the World. London: Natural History Museum, 2009.
  • ———. The Art and Science of William Bartram. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press; London: In association with the Natural History Museum, 2007.
  • Mazzolini, Renato G., ed. Non-Verbal Communication in Science prior to 1900. Biblioteca Di Nuncius. Studi e testi 11. Florence: Olschki, 1993.
  • McClellan III, James. “Scientific Institutions and the Organization of Science.” In The Cambridge History of Science. Vol. 4, Eighteenth-Century Science, edited by Roy Porter, 87–106. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
  • McDowall, Stephen. Qian Qianyi’s Reflections on Yellow Mountain: Traces of a Late-Ming Hatchet and Chisel. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press; London: Distributed by Eurospan, 2009.
  • Miller, David Philip, and Peter Hanns Reill, eds. Visions of Empire: Voyages, Botany, and Representations of Nature. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.
  • Morton, Alan G. History of Botanical Science: An Account of the Development of Botany from Ancient Times to the Present Day. London and New York: Academic Press, 1981.
  • Mutis, José Celestino. Flora de la Real Expedición Botánica del Nuevo Reino de Granada. 50 vols. Madrid: Ediciones de Cultura Hispánica, 1954.
  • Myers, Kathleen Ann. Fernández de Oviedo’s Chronicle of America: A New History for a New World. Translated by Nina M. Scott. 1st ed. Austin: University of Texas Press, 2007.

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  • Nappi, Carla Suzan. The Monkey and the Inkpot: Natural History and Its Transformations in Early Modern China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2009.
  • Newell, Jennifer. Trading Nature: Tahitians, Europeans, and Ecological Exchange. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press, 2010.
  • Nickelsen, Kärin. Draughtsmen, Botanists and Nature: The Construction of Eighteenth-Century Botanical Illustrations. Archimedes 15. Dordrecht: Springer, 2006.
  • Nicolson, Dan Henry, and F. Raymond Fosberg. The Forsters and the Botany of the Second Cook Expedition (17721775). 2nd ed. Regnum vegetabile 139. Ruggell, Liechtenstein: A. R. G. Gantner Verlag; Königstein, Germany: Distributed by Koeltz Scientific Books, 2004.
  • Noltie, Henry J. Raffles’ Ark Redrawn: Natural History Drawings from the Collection of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. London: British Library; Edinburgh: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh; London: In association with Bernard Quaritch, 2009.
  • ———, ed. The Long Tradition: The Botanical Exploration of the British Isles: A Conference Held on 12th14th September 1986 in the Pollock Halls, University of Edinburgh. The Scottish Naturalist / Botanical Society of the British Isles Conference Report 98th year (1986) / 20. Kilbarchan, Renfrewshire: Scottish Natural History Library; Peterborough: Distributed by F & M Perring, 1986.


  • O’Malley, Therese, and Amy R. W. Meyers, eds. The Art of Natural History: Illustrated Treatises and Botanical Paintings, 14001850. Studies in the History of Art 69; Symposium Papers 46. Washington, DC: National Gallery of Art; New Haven: Distributed by Yale University Press, 2008.


  • Pavord, Anna. The Naming of Names: The Search for Order in the World of Plants. 1st U.S. ed. New York: Bloomsbury, 2005.
  • Petersen, Ronald H. New World Botany: Columbus to Darwin. Ruggell, Liechtenstein: A. R. G. Gantner Verlag, 2001.
  • Pinault Sørensen, Madeleine. Le livre de botanique: XVIIe et XVIIIe siècles. Conférences Léopold Delisle. Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France, 2008.
  • Porter, David. The Chinese Taste in Eighteenth-Century England. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2010.
  • Prest, John M. The Garden of Eden: The Botanic Garden and the Recreation of Paradise. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981.
  • Prioreschi, Plinio. Roman Medicine. Vol. 3. A History of Medicine. Omaha: Horatius Press, 1998.

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  • Raphael, Sandra. An Oak Spring Garland: Illustrated Books, Prints, and Drawings from the Oak Spring Garden Library, Upperville, Virginia: An Exhibition in the Leonard L. Milberg Gallery for the Graphic Arts, Princeton University Library, 12 October17 December 1989. Upperville, VA: The Library, 1989.
  • ———. An Oak Spring Pomona: A Selection of the Rare Books on Fruit in the Oak Spring Garden Library. Upperville, VA: Oak Spring Garden Library; New Haven: Distributed by Yale University Press, 1990.
  • ———. An Oak Spring Sylva: A Selection of the Rare Books on Trees in the Oak Spring Garden Library. Upperville, VA: Oak Spring Garden Library; New Haven: Distributed by Yale University Press, 1989.
  • Ravindran, P. N., and K. Nirmal Babu, eds. Ginger: The Genus Zingiber. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants–Industrial Profiles 41. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2005.
  • Reveal, James L. Gentle Conquest: The Botanical Discovery of North America with Illustrations from the Library of Congress. Library of Congress Classics. Washington, DC: Starwood Pub, 1992.
  • Rice, Anthony. Der verzauberte Blick: Das Naturbild berühmter Expeditionen aus drei jahrhunderten. Translated by Fried Schmitz. Munich: Verlag Frederking & Thaler, 2000.
  • Rix, Martyn. Golden Age of Botanical Art. London: Andre Deutsch; Richmond, Surrey: In association with Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 2012.
  • Robinson, William. Home Landscapes: With Views Taken in the Farms, Woods, and Pleasure Grounds of Gravetye Manor; with Pictures of Old English Houses Showing the Value of Natural Form in Relation to Good Building, to Compare with the Disfigurement of the Dutch and Continental Gardens. 2nd ed. London: J. Murray, 1920.
  • Rocco, Fiammetta. The Miraculous Fever-Tree: Malaria, Medicine and the Cure That Changed the World. 1st ed. London: HarperCollins, 2003.
  • Roxburgh, William. Icones Roxburghianae: Or, Drawings of Indian Plants. Calcutta: Botanical Survey of India, 1964.
  • Roy, Malini. India and Southeast Asia: Natural History Drawings. Accessed May 28, 2013.
  • Ruiz, Hipólito. Relación del viaje hecho a los reinos del Perú y Chile por los botánicos y dibujantes enviados por el Rey para aquella expedición, extractada de los diarios por el orden que llevó en éstos su autor. Introduction, transcription, and notes by Raúl Rodriguez Nozal and Antonio González Bueno. Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 2007.
  • ———. The Journals of Hipólito Ruiz, Spanish Botanist in Peru and Chile, 17771788. Translated by Richard Evans Schultes and María José Nemry von Thenen de Jaramillo-Arango. Portland, OR: Timber Press, 1998.


  • Safier, Neil. Measuring the New World: Enlightenment Science and South America. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.
  • San Pío Aladrén, Pilar de, and Shirley Sherwood. Old and New South American Botanical Art: The Mutis & Shirley Sherwood Collections. Madrid: Real Jardín Botánico, CSIC, 2010.
  • Schiebinger, Londa L. Plants and Empire: Colonial Bioprospecting in the Atlantic World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2004.
  • Schiebinger, Londa, and Claudia Swan, eds. Colonial Botany: Science, Commerce, and Politics in the Early Modern World. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005.
  • Seares, Margaret. “The Composer and the Subscriber: A Case Study from the 18th Century.” Early Music 39, no. 1 (February 2011): 65–78.
  • Sessé, Martín, and José Estévez. Exploración botánica de las Islas de Barlovento: Cuba y Puerto Rico, siglo XVIII: La obra de Martín de Sessé y José Estévez. Edited by Paloma Blanco y Fernández de Caleya, Miguel Ángel Puig-Samper Mulero, Graziela Zamudio Varela, Mercedes Valero González, and J. Luis Maldonado Polo. Theatrum Naturae. Serie Textos Clásicos. Aranjuez: Ediciones Doce Calles; Spain: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1998.
  • Sitran Rea, Luciana. L’orto Rappresentato: Scienza, Didattica E Immagine a Padova Tra Sette E Ottocento. Cittadella, Pd: Biblos, 2002.
  • Smith, Vanessa. “Give Us Our Daily Breadfruit: Bread Substitution in the Pacific in the Eighteenth Century.” Studies in Eighteenth Century Culture 35, no. 1 (2006): 53–75.
  • Spary, Emma C. Eating the Enlightenment: Food and the Sciences in Paris. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press, 2012.
  • ———. Utopia’s Garden: French Natural History from Old Regime to Revolution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000.
  • Stafleu, Frans Antonie. Linnaeus and the Linnaeans: The Spreading of Their Ideas in Systematic Botany, 17351789. Regnum Vegetabile 79. Utrecht: Published by Oosthoek’s Uitgeversmaatschappij N.V. for the International Association for Plant Taxonomy, 1971.
  • Stearn, William T. Botanical Gardens and Botanical Literature in the Eighteenth Century. Pittsburgh, PA: Hunt Foundation, 1961.
  • ———. “Carl Linnaeus’s Acquaintance with Tropical Plants.” Taxon 37, no. 3 (August 1988): 776–81.
  • Steele, Arthur Robert. Flowers for the King: The Expedition of Ruiz and Pavon and the Flora of Peru. Duke Historical Publications. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1964.

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  • Tchikine, Anatole. “Gardens of Mistaken Identity: The Giardino Delle Stalle in Florence and the Giardino dell’Arsenale in Pisa.” Studies in the History of Gardens & Designed Landscapes 33, no. 1 (2013): 39–51.
  • Teng, Emma Jinhua. Taiwan’s Imagined Geography: Chinese Colonial Travel Writing and Pictures, 16831895. Harvard East Asian Monographs 230. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Asia Center; Distributed by Harvard University Press, 2004.
  • The Cambridge History of Science. 8 vols. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
  • Tobin, Beth Fowkes. Colonizing Nature: The Tropics in British Arts and Letters, 17601820. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2005.
  • Tongiorgi Tomasi, Lucia. An Oak Spring Flora: Flower Illustration from the Fifteenth Century to the Present Time: A Selection of the Rare Books, Manuscripts, and Works of Art in the Collection of Rachel Lambert Mellon. Translated by Lisa Chien. The Rachel Lambert Mellon Collection. Upperville, VA: Oak Spring Garden Library; New Haven: Distributed by Yale University Press, 1997.
  • Tongiorgi Tomasi, Lucia, and Tony Willis. An Oak Spring Herbaria: Herbs and Herbals from the Fourteenth to the Nineteenth Centuries: A Selection of the Rare Books, Manuscripts and Works of Art in the Collection of Rachel Lambert Mellon. Translated by Lisa Chien. The Rachel Lambert Mellon Collection. Upperville, VA: Oak Spring Garden Library, 2009.
  • Trocki, Carl A. Opium, Empire, and the Global Political Economy: A Study of the Asian Opium Trade, 17501950. Asia’s Transformations. London and New York: Routledge, 1999.


  • Uffelen, Gerda Alida van, and Erik de Jong, eds. Text of the Clusius Lectures, 1997 = Tekst van de Clusiuslezingen. Leiden: Clusiusstichting, 1997.
  • United States Botanic Garden and Chicago Botanic Garden. Plants in Print: The Age of Botanical Discovery. Washington, DC: United States Botanic Garden; Glencoe, IL: Chicago Botanic Garden, 2004.


  • Vilchis, Jaime, and Victoria Arias, eds. Ciencia y tecnica entre viejo y nuevo mundo: Siglos XVXVIII. Madrid: Lunwerg Editores, 1992.
  • Vos, Paula De. “Natural History and the Pursuit of Empire in Eighteenth-Century Spain.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 40, no. 2 (2007): 209–39.
  • ———. “The Science of Spices: Empiricism and Economic Botany in the Early Spanish Empire.” Journal of World History 17, no. 4 (December 2006): 399–427.


  • Watts, Peter, Jo Anne Pomfrett, and David Mabberley. An Exquisite Eye: The Australian Flora & Fauna Drawings, 18011820, of Ferdinand Bauer. Glebe, N.S.W: Historic Houses Trust of New South Wales, 1997.
  • Wijnands, D. O. The Botany of the Commelins: A Taxonomical, Nomenclatural, and Historical Account of the Plants Depicted in the Moninckx Atlas and in the Four Books by Jan and Caspar Commelin on the Plants in the Hortus Medicus Amstelodamensis, 16821710. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema; Salem, NH: MBS, 1983.
  • Wilson, Edward O. Kingdom of Ants: José Celestino Mutis and the Dawn of Natural History in the New World. Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010.
  • Wolf, Gerhard, and Joseph Connors, eds. Colors between Two Worlds: The Florentine Codex of Bernardino De Sahagún. Villa I Tatti 28. Florence: Kunsthistorisches Institut in Florenz, Max-Planck-Institut ; Villa I Tatti, the Harvard University Center for Italian Renaissance Studies, 2011.
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  • Zerega, Nyree J. C., Diane Ragone, and Timothy J. Motley. “Complex Origins of Breadfruit (Artocarpus Altilis, Moraceae): Implications for Human Migrations in Oceania.” American Journal of Botany 91, no. 5 (May 2004): 760–66.

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